해양생태독성평가를 위한 표준시험생물로서의 식물플랑크톤에 관한 연구

DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

박경수;이상희;이승민
Park Gyung-Soo;Lee Sang-Hee;Lee Seung-Min

  • 발행 : 2005.12.01

초록

A series of experiments was conducted to identify the potential of five phytoplankton species as standard test species for marine ecotoxicological tests. The candidate phytoplankton species are Skeletonema costatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Prorocentrum micans, Isochrysis galbana, and Tetraselmis suecica. Salinity tolerance and sensitivity on potassium dichromate as a reference material were identified. Toxicity of eleven ocean dumped sewage sludges and four red tide expellent extracts were estimated by the inhibition of population growth rates (PGR) of marine diatom S. costatum, While most species revealed relatively weak tolerance on salinity, T. suecica demonstrated the highest salinity tolerance ranged from $5\~35$ psu and the others $15\~35$ psu. H. akashiwo revealed the highest sensitivity as 72h $IC_{50}$=0.76mg/L and T. suecica the lowest as 72h $IC_{50}$=8.89mg/L on potassium dichromate. Sludge extracts from industrial waste, domestic sewage and livestock farm waste sludge showed high toxicity as 72h $IC_{50}$<$2\%$ and lowest toxicity from filtration bed sludge as 72h $IC_{50}$=$30.50\%$ NOEC (No Observed Effective Concentration) of sludge extract ranged from <$0.4\%$ to $1.6\%$ and this indicated high phytotoxicity of ocean dumped sewage sludge. The test sensitivity of phytoplankton PGR inhibition was much higher than those of marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis mortality test and bioluminescent inhibition test by marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, and comparable with the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) fertilization test. As a result the phytotoxicity test using phytoplankton PGR inhibition ($IC_{50}$) must be a useful tool for marine phyto-toxicological evaluation of ocean dumped materials.

키워드

Phytoplankton;Ecotoxicity;Bioassay;Salinity;tolerance;Sewage sludge;Skeletonema costatum;Heterosigma akashiwo;Prorocentrum micans

참고문헌

  1. Chapman, P. M., 1992, Pollution status of North Sea sediments- an international integrative study, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 91, 313-322 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps091313
  2. Ghirardini, A. V., T. Birkemeyer, A. A. Novelli, E. Delaney, B. Pavoni and P. F. Ghetti, 1999, An integrated approach to sediment quality assessment: the Venetian lagoon as a case study, Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage., 2, 435-447 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1463-4988(99)00029-9
  3. Anderson, B. S., J. W. Hunt, B. M. Phillips, R. Fairey, C. A. Roberts, J. M. Oakden, H. M. Puckett, M. Stephenson, R. S. Tjeerdema, E. R. Long, C. J. Wilson and J. M. Lyons, 2001, Sediment quality in Los Angeles Harbor, USA: A triad assessment, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20, 359-370 https://doi.org/10.1897/1551-5028(2001)020<0359:SQILAH>2.0.CO;2
  4. Silvia, S., A. Re, P. Pestana, A. Rodrigues and V. Quintino, 2004, Sediment disturbance off the Tagus Estuary, Western Portugal: chronic contamination, sewage outfall operation and runoff events, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 49, 154-162 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.004
  5. Rand, G. M. and S. R. Petrocelli, 1985, Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, 666pp
  6. Lee, J. S., K. T. Lee, D. H. Kim, C. K. Kim, J. H. Lee, K. H. Park and G. S. Park, 2005a, Application of indigenous benthic amphipods as sediment toxicity testing organisms, Ocean Science Journal, 40, 17-24
  7. Park, G. S., C. S. Chung, S. H. Lee, G. H. Hong, S. H. Kim, S. Y. Park, S. J. Yoon and S. M. Lee, 2005, Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge using bioluminescent marine bacteria and rotifer, Ocean Science Journal, 40, 91-100 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03028589
  8. Burton, G. A., 1992, Sediment Toxicity Assessment, Lewis Publishers Inc., Chelsea, 457pp
  9. ISO, 1995, Water quality- marine algal growth inhibition test with Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricomutum. the International Organization for Standardization, ISO 10253, 7pp
  10. NIWA, 1998, Marine Algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) Chronic Toxicity Test Protocol, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand, 30pp
  11. APHA, AWWA and WEF, 1995, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington, D.C., pp. 1-47
  12. Hooten, R. L. and R. S. Carr, 1997, Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 17, 932-940 https://doi.org/10.1897/1551-5028(1998)017<0932:DAAOAM>2.3.CO;2
  13. Cheung, Y. H., A. Neller, K. H. Chu, N. F. Y. Tam, C. K. Wong, Y. S. Wong and M. H. Wong, 1997, Assessment of sediment toxicity using different trophic organisms, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 32, 260-267 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002449900183
  14. Wong, Y. S., N. F. Y. Tam, P. S. Lau and X. Z. Xue, 1995, The toxicity of marine sediments in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 31, 4-12
  15. Weideborg, M., E. A. Vik, G. D. Ofjord and O. Kjonno, 1997, Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 16, 384-389 https://doi.org/10.1897/1551-5028(1997)016<0384:COTMST>2.3.CO;2
  16. Rao, M. U. and V. Mohanchand, 1990, Toxicity of zinc smelter wastes to some marine diatoms, Indian J. Marine Sciences, 19, 181-186
  17. Walsh, G. E. and S. V. Alexander, 1980, A marine algal bioassay method: results with pesticides and industrial waste, Water Air Soil Pollut., 13, 45-55 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02262524
  18. Overnell, J., 1976, Inhibition of marine algal photosynthesis by heavy metals, Mar. Biol., 38, 335-342 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00391373
  19. 문성기, 최철만, 2003, 국내 해양식물플랑크톤의 주요종과 분포에 대한 조사, 한국환경과학회, 12, 725-733
  20. 환경교육연구회, 2000, 환경오염공정시험법(폐기물 토양오염분야), 대학서림, 564pp
  21. Shapiro, S. S. and M. B. Wilk, 1965, An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples), Biometrika, 52, 591-611 https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591
  22. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran, 1989, Statistical Methods, 8th Edition, Iowa State University Press, 502pp
  23. Dunnett, C. W., 1964, New table for multiple comparisons with a control, Biometrics, 20, 482 https://doi.org/10.2307/2528490
  24. Ravail, B. and J. M. Robert, 1985, Influence of salinity on the growth of S. costatum (Greville) Cleve in the waters of the Loire Estuary, Cryptogramie: Algol., 6, 51-60
  25. Shimura, S., H. Shibuya and S. Ichimura, 1979, Growth and photosynthesis properties of some planktonic marine diatoms at various salinity regimes, Umi/la mer, Tokyo, 17(3), 149-155
  26. Chapman, D. V., 1985, Preliminary observations on the interaction between plankton and sewage dumped at sea, Marine Environmental Quality Committee, Int. Co. Explor. Sea CM 1985/E, 26, 11pp
  27. Santoro, E. D. and T. J. Fikslin, 1987, Chemical and toxicological characteristics of sewage sludge ocean dumped in the New York Bight, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 18, 394-399 https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(87)90319-5
  28. Costello, M. J. and P. Read, 1994, Toxicity of sewage sludge to marine organisms: a review, Mar. Environ. Res., 37, 23-46 https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(94)90061-2
  29. 해양수산부, 2005, 폐기물 해양배출 종합관리 시스템 구축(I), 해양수산부, 1057pp
  30. MOMAF, 2004, Development of Assessment Framework on the Sewage Sludge for Ocean Disposal, Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Korea, 390pp
  31. Lee, J. S., K. T. Lee and G. S. Park, 2005b, Acute toxicity of heavy metal tributyltin, ammonia and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to benthic amphipod Grandidierella japonica, Ocean Science Journal, 40, 61-66 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03028586
  32. Jensen, A., B. Rystad and S. Melsom, 1974, Heavy metal tolerance of marine phytoplankton. 1. the tolerance of three algal species to zinc in coastal sea water, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 15, 145-157 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(74)90040-9

피인용 문헌

  1. 1. Potential of Marine Ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as a Standard Test Species for Marine Ecotoxicological Study vol.20, pp.9, 2011, doi:10.5322/JES.2005.14.12.1129