A Survey on Self-reported Health and Eating Habit of Elite Female Adolescent Athletes in Incheon by Sport Type

인천지역 대표 중고등학교 여자 선수의 운동경기 종목별 건강 및 식습관에 관한 조사

  • 성현이 (인하대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 장경자 (인하대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2005.03.01


This study was carried out to investigate the self-reported health and eating habit of the elite female adolescent athletes in Incheon. The subjects were 102 elite female athletes of middle and high schools located in Inchon. A self-administered Questionnaire was used for this cross-sectional survey. Statistical analysis by two-way ANOVA was performed to discriminate between the main effects of age (as middle and high school athletes) and sports type, and their interaction. As use of nutritional supplements, 35.8% of the total subjects took vitamin and iron supplements and 62.5% of field and track athletes took vitamin and iron supplements. While mental stress related to exercise was much in fencing > shooting > field and track > swimming athletes, physical burden during training was higher in swimming > field and track > fencing > shooting athletes. More than half of the subjects showed irregular menstrual cycle. As the most severe problem of eating habit, they reported skipping meal > overeating > prejudiced meal > preference to salty and spicy foods. More than half of the subjects skipped meal over three times per week. Fencing and shooting athletes showed very significantly higher frequency of skipping meal and more irregular breakfast time compared to those of other sport types. As for snack, they ate cookies, carbonated drink, chocolate, candy > milk, yogurt, ice cream > cake, bread, rice cake > fried noodle > hamburger, pizza. Therefore, nutritional counseling and education by sport type are necessary for health and good eating habit of these elite female adolescent athletes.


  1. Kazis K, Iglesias E. 2003. The female athlete triad. Adolesc Med 14: 87-95
  2. Hobert JA, Smucker DR. 2000. The female athlete triad. Am Fam Physician 61: 3357-3364
  3. Golden NH. 2002. A review of female athlete triad (amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disordered eating). Int J Adolesc Med Health 14: 9-17
  4. Manore MM. 1999. Nutritional needs of the female athlete. Clin Sports Med 18: 549-563
  5. Sherman RT, Thompson RA. 2004. The female athlete triad. J Sch Nurs 20: 197-202
  6. Otis CL, Drinkwater B, Johnson M, Loucks A, Wilmore J. 1997. American College of Sports Medicine position stand, The Female Athlete Triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: i-ix
  7. Bass M, Turner L, Hunt S. 2001. Counseling female athletes: application of the stages of change model to avoid disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Psychol Rep 88: 1153-1160
  8. Nattiv A, Agostini R, Drinkwater B, Yeager KK. 1994. The female athlete triad. The inter-relatedness of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Clin Sports Med 13: 405-418
  9. Beals KA. 2002. Eating behaviors, nutritional status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent volleyball players. J Am Diet Assoc 102: 1293-1296
  10. Kurtzman FD, Yager J, Landsverk J, Wiesmeier E, Bodurka DC. 1989. Eating disorders among selected female student populations at UCLA. J Am Diet Assoc 89: 906-909
  11. Sung DJ, Lee HK, Cho S. 1998. Nutritional, physiological and menstrual status of athletic amenorrheic gymnasts. Korean J Exer Nutr 2: 59-70
  12. Manore MM. 2002. Dietary recommendations and athletic menstrual dysfunction. Sports Med 32: 887-901
  13. Lindeman AK. 1994. Self-esteem: its application to eating disorders and athletes. Int J Sport Nutr 4: 237-252
  14. Chang MK, Ahn CS, Park SM, 2001. A behavior-modification approaches to improved exercise performance for athletes through the multiple nutritional counseling. Korean J Nutr 34: 79-88
  15. Werblow JA, Fox HM, Henneman A. 1978. Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes. J Am Diet Assoc 73: 242-245
  16. Fruth SJ, Worrell TW. 1995. Factors associated with menstrual irregularities and decreased bone mineral density in female athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 22: 26-38
  17. Dueck CA, Manore MM, Matt KS. 1996. Role of energy balance in athletic menstrual dysfunction. Int J Sport Nutr 6: 165-190
  18. Lee MC, Kim MH, Hong HO, Kim YS. 2000. A research for the recommended dietary allowances of Korean competitive athletes according to the different types of sports. Korean J Exerc Nutr 4: 1-20
  19. Kang HS, Kim JS Lee MC. 1999. A study on nutritional staus, eating behavior and food preference of the male and female elite gymnasts. Korean J Exerc Nutr 3: 13-23
  20. Cheong SH, Sung H, Kim SK, Chang KJ. 2004. Iron deficiency of elite female adolescent athletes by age and sport types in Incheon area. Korean J Exerc Nutr 8: 399-408
  21. Haymes EM. 1991. Vitamin and mineral supplementation to athletes. Int J Sport Nutr 1: 146-189
  22. Ziegler PJ, Nelson JA, jonnalagadda SS. 2003. Use of dietary supplements by elite figure skaters. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13: 266-276
  23. Woo SI, Cho SS, Kim KW, Kim JH. 1998. Nutrient supplement use, nutritional knowledge and nutrient intakes of athletes. Korean J Comm Nutr 3: 94-106
  24. Kim SH, Keen CL. 1999. Patterns of vitamin/mineral supplement usages by adolescents attending high schools in Korea. Int J Sport Nutr 9: 391-405
  25. Kim SH, Han JH, Keen CL. 2001. Vitamin and mineral supplement use by healthy teenagers in Korea. Motivating factors and dietary consequences. Nutrition 17: 373-380
  26. Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J. Kopesky L. 2004. Nutritional supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14: 104-120
  27. Selby R, Weinstein HM, Bird TS. 1990. The health of university athletes: attitudes, behaviors, and stressors. J Am Coli Health 39: 11-18
  28. Mansfield MJ, Emans SJ. 1989. Anorexia nervosa, athletics, and amenorrhea. Pediatr Clin North Am 36: 533-549
  29. Warren MP, Perlroth NE. 2001. The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. J Endocrinol 170: 3-11
  30. Mackinnon LT, Hooper S. 1994. Mucosal (secretory) immune system responses to exercise of varying intensity and during overtraining. Int J Sports Med Suppl 3: S179-183
  31. Nattiv A. 2000. Stress fractures and bone health in track and field athletes. J Sci Med Sport 3: 268-279
  32. Korpelainen R, Orava S, Karpakka J, Siira P, Hulkko A. 2001. Risk factors for recurrent stress fractures in athletes. Am J Sports Med 29: 304-310
  33. Lee MC, Kim MH. 2001. A comparative study on dietary life of elite athletes. Proc of Korean Nutritional Society Conference, May 26. p 77-87
  34. Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2003. Analysis of 2001 National Survey on Health and Nutrition
  35. Lee JS. 2002. Present food service state for athletes in Korea. Korean J Comm Nutr 7: 421-426
  36. Sanborn CF, Horea M, Siemers BJ, Dieringer KI. 2000. Disordered eating and the female athlete triad. Clin Sports Med 19: 199-213
  37. Steptoe A, Lipsey Z, Wardle J. 1998. Stress, hassels and variations in alcohol. food choice and physical exercise; a dietary study. Br J Health Psychol 3: 51-63
  38. Yoon GA. 2001. Contribution of food behavior and psychological factor to perceived tiredness in adolescents. Korean J Nutr 34: 89-97

Cited by

  1. Effects of Nutrition Education Providing School Lunch by Personalized Daily Needed Food Exchange Units for Adolescent Athletes in Jeonbuk Province vol.21, pp.1, 2016,