Moon, Deok-Hyun

  • Published : 2005.12.31


The effectiveness of fly ash-, quicklime-, and quicklime-fly ash-based stabilization/solidification(S/S) in chromium(Cr) contaminated soils was investigated using modified semi-dynamic leaching tests. Artificial soil samples composed of kaolinite or montmorillonite contaminated with chromium nitrate(4000 mg $Cr^{3+}\;kg^{-1}$ of solid) were prepared and then subjected to S/S treatment using quicklime, fly ash, or quick lime-fly ash. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by assessing the cumulative fraction of leached $Cr^{3+}$ as well as, by computing the effective diffusivity ($D_e$) and the leachability index (LX) of the treated samples. The reduction in $Cr^{3+}$ release for the untreated samples was more pronounced in the presence of montmorillonite, which was attributed to sorption. Treatment with quicklime, fly ash, or quick lime-fly ash was significantly effective in reducing $Cr^{3+}$ release most probably due to the formation of pozzolanic reaction products and $Cr(OH)_3$ precipitation. The most effective treatment was observed in montmorillonite-sand soil samples treated with quicklime-fly ash (99.8% removal). The mean $D_e$ decreased significantly and the mean LX was greater than 9 for all treated samples, indicating that the treated soils were acceptable for "controlled utilization". The mechanism controlling $Cr^{3+}$ leaching from all treated samples during the first 5 days appeared to be diffusion.


chromium ($Cr^{3+}$;);leachability index (LX);quicklime;semi-dynamic leaching test;stabilization/solidification (S/S)


  1. Richard, F. C. and Bourg, A. C. M., 'Aqueous geochemistry of chromium: a review,' Wat. Res., 25(7), 807-816 (1991)
  2. Rinehart, T. L., Schulze, D. G., Bricka, R. M., Bajt, S., and Blatchley, E. R., 'Chromium leaching vs. oxidation state for a contaminated solidified/stabilized soil,' J. Hazard. Mater., 52, 213-221 (1997)
  3. Mertz, W., 'Chromium as a dietary essential for man,' In Trace Elements Metabolism, W. G. Hoekstra, J. W. Suttie, K. E. Ganther, W. Mertz, eds., University Park Press, Baltimore, 185-198 (1974)
  4. Ajmal, M., Nomani, A. A. and Ahmad, A., 'Acute toxicity of chrome electroplating wastes to microorganisms: adsorption of chromate and chromium (VI) on a mixture of clay and sand,' Wat. Air Soil. Pollut., 23, 119-127 (1984)
  5. Kindness, A., Macias, A. and Glasser, F. P., 'Immobilization of chromium in cement matrices,' Waste Manage., 14(1), 3-11 (1994)
  6. Yukselen, M. A. and Alpaslan, B. J., 'Leaching of metals from soil contaminated by mining activities,' J. Hazard. Mater., B87, 289-300 (2001)
  7. Dermatas, D. and Meng, X., 'Utilization of fly ash for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of heavy metal contaminated soils,' Eng. Geol., 70, 377-394 (2003)
  8. Dermatas, D. and Moon, D. H., 'Chromium leaching and immobilization in treated soils,' Environ. Eng. Sci., 23(1), 77-87 (2006)
  9. Dutre, V., Kestens, C. and Schaep, J., Vandecasteele, C., 'Study of the remediation of a site contaminated with arsenic,' Sci. of the Total Environ., 220, 185-194 (1998)
  10. Moon, D. H., Dermatas, D., and Menounou, N., 'Arsenic immobilization by calcium-arsenic precipitates in lime treated soils,' Sci. of the Total Environ., 330, 171-185 (2004)
  11. Lee, D. J., 'Leachability of Pb-doped solidified waste forms using Portland cement and calcite: II. Investigation of SEM/EDS,' Environ. Eng. Res., 9(2), 66-74 (2004)
  12. Lee, D. J., 'Leachability of Pb-doped solidified waste forms using Portland cement and calcite: I. Investigation of X-ray diffraction,' Environ. Eng. Res., 9(3), 103-112 (2004)
  13. Lee, D. J., 'Leachability of Pb-doped solidified waste forms using Portland cement and calcite: III. Insight of leaching mechanism,' Environ. Eng. Res., 9(4), 175-183 (2004)
  14. Moon, D. H., 'Lead leachability from quicklime treated soils in a diffusion controlled environment,' Environ. Eng. Res., 10(3), 112-121 (2005)
  15. ANS, 'American national standard measurements of the leachability of solidified low-level radioactive wastes by a short-term test procedure,' ANSI/ANS, 16.1, American Nuclear Society, ed., La Grange Park, Illinois, (1986)
  16. USEPA, 'Solid waste leaching procedure manual,' SW-924, USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, (1985)
  17. USEPA, 'Test methods for evaluation solid wastes-physical/chemical methods,' SW-846, USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, (1984)
  18. Dutre, V. and Vandecasteele, C., 'Solidification/ stabilization of arsenic-containing waste: leach tests and behavior of arsenic in the leachate,' Waste Manage., 15(1), 55-62 (1995)
  19. Dutre, V. and Vandecasteele, C., 'An evaluation of the solidification/stabilization of industrial arsenic containing waste using extraction and semi-dynamic leach tests,' Waste Manage., 16(7), 625-631 (1996)
  20. de Groot, G. J. and van der Sloot, H. A., 'Determination of leaching characteristics of waste materials leading to environmental product certification,' Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes, Vol. 2, ASTM STP 1123, T. M. Gilliam, C. C. Wiles, eds., American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 149-170 (1992)
  21. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 74th ed., CRC Press, (1993-1994)
  22. Wastewater Technology Centre, 'Proposed evaluation protocol for cement-based solidified wastes,' Environment Canada Report EPS 3/HA/9, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, (1991)
  23. Dermatas, D. and Meng, X., 'Leachability study of Cr contaminated soils to asses the long-term effectiveness of remediation technologies,' Geoenvironment, No. 46, ASCE, New York, NY, 449-462 (1995)
  24. Ricou-Hoeffer, P., Lecuyer, I., and Ie CloIrec, P., 'Experimental design methodology applied to adsorption of metallic ions onto fly ash,' Wat. Res., 35(4), 965-976 (2001)
  25. Cote, P. L., Constable, T. W., and Moreira, A., 'An evaluation of cement-based waste forms using the results of approximately two years of dynamic leaching,' Nucl. Chem. Waste Manag., 17, 129-139 (1987)
  26. Nathwani, J. S. and Phillips, C. R., 'Leachability of Ra-226 from uranium mill tailings consolidated with naturally occurring materials and/or cement: Analysis based on mass transport equation,' Water Air Soil Pollution., 14, 389-402 (1980)
  27. Dermatas, D., Moon, D. H., Menounou, N., Meng, X., and Hires, R., 'An evaluation of arsenic release from monolithic solids using a modified semi-dynamic leaching test,' J. Hazard. Mater., B116, 25-38 (2004)
  28. ASTM, 'The test method for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using modified effort,' Annual book of ASTM standards: ASTM D1557-91, Vol. 4.08, Philadelphia, PA, 227-234 (1993)
  29. Ibanez, R., Andres, A., Trabien, J. A., and Ortiz, I., 'Fly ash binders in stabilization of FGD wastes,' J. Environ. Eng., 124(1), 43-50 (1998)
  30. Palomo, A. and Palacios, M., 'Alkali-activated cementitious materials: alternative matrices for the immobilization of hazardous wastes part II: stabilization of chromium and lead,' Cement and Concrete Res., 33, 289-295 (2003)