DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Chemical Properties of Olive and Bay Leaves

올리브 잎과 월계수 잎의 화학적 특성

  • Lee, Ok-Hwan (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, Hee-Bong (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, Junsoo (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Son, Jong-Youn (Institute of Food Industry and Biotechnology, Dept. of Food and Biotechnology, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Rhee, Seong-Kap (Institute of Food Industry and Biotechnology, Dept. of Food and Biotechnology, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Duk (Institute of Food Industry and Biotechnology, Dept. of Food and Biotechnology, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Young-Chan (Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Lee, Boo-Yong (Graduate School of Complementary Alternative Medicine, Pochon CHA University)
  • 이옥환 (충북대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 이희봉 (충북대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 이준수 (충북대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 손종연 (한경대학교 식품생물공학과 식품생물산업연구소) ;
  • 이성갑 (한경대학교 식품생물공학과 식품생물산업연구소) ;
  • 김현덕 (한경대학교 식품생물공학과 식품생물산업연구소) ;
  • 김영찬 (한국식품연구원) ;
  • 이부용 (포천중문의과대학교 대체의학대학원)
  • Published : 2005.04.01

Abstract

The chemical properties of olive and bay leaves were investigated and analyzed to provide basic data for food materialization and processing. The moisture contents of olive and bay leaves were $3.95\%$ and $8.50\%$, respectively. The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and carbohydrates of olive leaf were $11.04\%,\;7.45\%,\;5.05\%\;and\;76.46\%$, respectively. And the contents of same those components of bay leaf were $7.23\%,\;7.21\%,\;3.72\%\;and\;81.84\%$, respectively. Glutamic acid $(1086.8\;mg\%)$and aspartic acid $(918.8\;mg\%)$ in olive leaf were major amino acids, glutamic acid $(621.2\;mg\%)$ and leucine $(558.6\;mg\%)$ in bay leaf were the major amino acids. The major free sugar of olive leaf was sucrose $(1.55\%)$. Whereas major free sugar of bay leaf was glucose $(1.54\%)$. Palmitic acid $(olive\;33.0\%,\;bay\;17.8\%)$ and linolenic acid $(olive\;31.1\%,\;bay\;35.2\%)$ were major fatty acid in crude fat of both olive leaf and bay leaf. The Ca contents were the highest in olive leaf $(929.6\;mg\%)$and bay leaf $(836.2\;mg\%)$. Vitamin A contents of olive and bay leaves were 5.10 mg/100 g and 6.49 mg/100 g, respectively. Vitamin C contents of olive and bay leaves were 36.64 mg/100 g and 13.86 mg/100 g, respectively. But vitamin $B_6$ and $B_{12}$ were not detected.

References

  1. Fernandez-Escobar R, Moreno R, Garcia-Creus M. 1999. Sesonal changes of mineral nutrients in olive leaves during the alternate-bearing cycle. Scientia Horticulture 82: 25-45 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(99)00045-X
  2. Hertog MGL, Feskeens EJM, Hollman CH, Katan MB, Kromhout D. 1993. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease. Lancet 342: 1007-1011 https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)92876-U
  3. Zarzuelo A. 1991. Vasoliator effect of olive leaf. Planta Medica 57: 417-419 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960138
  4. Samuelssion G. 1951. The blood pressure lowering factor in leaves of Olea europaea. Farmacevtisk Revy 15: 229-239
  5. Aziz NH, Farag SE, Mousa LA, Abo-Zaid MA. 1998. Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 93: 43-54
  6. Ryan D, Antolovich M, Prenzler P, Robards K, Lavee S. 2002. Biotransformations of phenolic compounds in Olea europaea L. Scientia Horticulture 92: 147-176 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(01)00287-4
  7. Bianco A, Uccella N. 2000. Biophenolic components of olives. Food Research International 33: 475-485 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00072-7
  8. Simic M, Kundakovic T, Kovacevic N. 2003. Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Laurus nobilis extracts. Fitoterapia 74: 613-616 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00143-6
  9. Kivcakb B, Mert T. 2002. Preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic properties of Laurus nobilis extracts. Fitoterapia 73: 242-243 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00060-6
  10. Floch FL, Tena MT, Rios A, Valcarcel M. 1998. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenol compounds from olive leaves. Talanta 46: 1123-1130 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(97)00375-5
  11. Lee-Huang S, Zhang L, Huang PL, Chang YT, Huang PL. 2003. Anti-Hiv activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV -1 infection and OLE treatment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 307: 1029-1037 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01292-0
  12. Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Lorente J, Ortuno A, Del Rio JA. 2000. Antioxidant activity of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. leaves. Food Chem 68: 457-462 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00221-6
  13. Delgado-Pertinez M, Gomez-Cabrera A, Garrido A. 2000. Predicting the nutritive value of the olive leaf (Olea europaea): digestibility and chemistry composition and in vitro studies. Anim Feed Sci Technol 87: 187-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00195-4
  14. Raymond JL., Michael A, Jean H. 1996. Variation in chemical and physical properties during leaf development in california bay tree: Predictions regarding palatability for deer. Biochem Syst Ecol 24: 93-103 https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-1978(95)00094-1
  15. Matsuda H, Shimoda H, Uemura T, Yoshikawa M. 1999. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: Structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 9: 2647-2652 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-894X(99)00442-4
  16. Yoshikawa M, Shimoda H, Uemura T, Morikawa T, Kawahara Y, Matsuda H. 2000. Alcohol absorption inhibitors from bay leaf (Laurus nobilis): Structure requirement of sesquiterpenes for the activity. Bioorg & Med Chem 8: 2071-2077 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-0896(00)00127-9
  17. Matsuda H, Kagerura T, Toguchida I, Ueda H, Morikawa T, Yoshikawa M. 2000. Inhibitory effects of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on nitic oxide production in lipopolysaccharide activated macrophages: Structure requirement and role heat shock protein induction. Life Sci 66: 2151-2157 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00542-7
  18. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC, USA
  19. Waters AccQ.-Tag Amino acid Analysis System. 1993. Operator's Manual. Milford, USA
  20. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC, USA
  21. Korea Food and Drug Administration. 2003. Test method in general 1. Food Code (separate volume)
  22. National Rural Living Science Institute, RDA. 2001. Food composition table. Sixth revision 1. p 176-177
  23. Delgado-Pertinez M, Gomez-Cabrera A, Garrido A. 2000. Predicting the nutritive value of the olive leaf (Olea europaeat): digestibility and chemistry composition and in vitro studies. Anim Feed Sci Technol 87: 187-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00195-4
  24. Lee HY. 1960. On the study of amino acids contained in several flavor materials. J Korean Home Economics Association 2: 211-219
  25. Oh MH, Whang HJ. 2003. Chemical composition of several herb plants. Korean J Food Sci Technol 35: 1-6
  26. Ryoo JW, Cha BC. 1998. Mineral content and antioxidative activity in some herb plants. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 6: 28-32
  27. Lee MJ, Lee GP, Park KW. 2001. Status of selenium contents and effect of selenium treatment on essential oil contents in several Korean herbs. Korean J Hort Sci Technol 19: 384-388

Cited by

  1. Chemical Properties of Barley Leaf Using Different Drying Methods vol.37, pp.1, 2008, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.1.60
  2. Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Bioactivities of the Low Salt Squid Jeot-gal with Natural Plant Extracts vol.42, pp.5, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.721
  3. Analysis on the Components and Safety Evaluation of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai Leaves and Stems vol.40, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2014.40.3.234
  4. Hepatocyte Lysosomal Membrane Stabilization by Olive Leaves against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Neoplasia in Rats vol.2011, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/736581
  5. Comparative investigation of minerals, chlorophylls contents, fatty acid composition and thermal profiles of olive leaves (Olea europeae L.) as by-product vol.65, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0102141
  6. Nutritional Components of Korean Traditional Actinidia (Actinidia arguta) Sprout and in vitro Antioxidant Effect vol.47, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2015.47.1.37
  7. Yeast and Trichoderma viride Don't Synergistically Work to Improve Olive Trees by Products Digestibility and Lactating Barki Ewe's Productivity vol.18, pp.6, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2018.270.279