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Optimization for the Physical Properties of Steamed Foam Cakes Prepared with Single-stage Method by Response Surface Methodology

반응표면 분석법에 의한 단단계법 거품형 찜 케이크의 물리적 특성의 최적화

  • 곽성호 (신성대학 호텔식품계열) ;
  • 장명숙 (단국대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2005.04.01

Abstract

In preparation of steamed foam-cakes, effects of whipping time, amount of wheat flour, and amounts of emulsifier on physical properties of the steamed foam cakes were investigated using RSM (response surface methodology). The three independent variables selected for the RSM experiment were whipping time $(X_1)$, amount of wheat flour $(X_2)$, and amounts of wheat flour $(X_2)$, and concentration of emulsifier $(X_3)$ were set for single-stage mixing, respectively. A rotatable central composite design was used for treatment arrangement. The responses from the product for loaf volume, color values and textural properties were analysed. In the analysis of variance for the foam cakes prepared by single-stage method, significant interactions were observed between independent variables (experimental factors) and physical property like loaf volume (p<0.05); textural properties like hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (p<0.05). Among independent variables, concentration of emulsifier had the most effects on physical properties while whipping time. The ordinary points in surface response showed maximal points with physical property like colorimetric b value while other properties revealed saddle points. The 3-dimensional response surface graphs of the predicted regression models displayed decreasing loaf volumes with increasing whipping times and emulsifier concentrations beyond optimum levels. The optimum conditions for best loaf volume and textural property (hardness, gummimess and chewiness) of the products selected by extracting intersectional areas of the contour maps that commonly overlapped all characteristics were; $11\~13$ min whipping time, $470\~486\;g$ amount of wheat flour, and $19\~20\;g$ emulsifier concentration, in case of single-stage method. The median values extracted from the RSM experimental results for optimum manufacturing conditions for single-stage method, i.e., 12 min whipping time, 478 g amount of wheat flour, and 20 g emulsifier concentration were empirically proven to fit the predicted levels of physical properties from the final foam cakes.

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