DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Contemporary organic contamination levels in digested sewage sludge from treatment plants in Korea: (2) Non-alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

우리나라 하수 및 폐수 처리 슬러지의 다환방향족탄화수소의 함량

Lee Kang-Young;Chung Chang-Soo;Kim Young-Il;Lee Hyun-Kyung;Hong Gi-Hoon
이강영;정창수;김영일;이현경;홍기훈

  • Published : 2005.04.01

Abstract

The 16 priority PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) designated by US Environmental Protection Agency were analyzed for some digested sludges from wastewater treatment plants in Korea. PAHs are an important group of organic contaminants present in sewage sludge due to their persistence and toxic potential. PAHs were extracted from freeze-dried sludges using a methylene chloride-methanol (2:1) mixture in a soxhlet extractor. The extracts were cleaned-up by silica gel/alumina combination column and subsequently fed into gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) for determining PAH contents. The sum of the 16 PAHs in the sewage sludge varied from 534.8 to $5754.5 {\cal}ug/{\cal}kg$, dry wt.. In the sewage sludge, phenanthrene appears as the most abundant PAHs, followed by naphthalene, pyrene, fluoranthene. Source of the investigated sewage sludges relatively predominated pyrogenic. PAHs levels of sewage sludges in Korea appeared to be lower than those in other countries.

Keywords

PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons);Sewage sludge;Source recognition;GC/MS

References

  1. Fernandes, M. B., M. A. Sicre and A. Boireau, 1997, Aquatic hydrocarbon distributions in the Seine Estuary: Biogenic polyaromatics and n-alkanes, Estuaries, 20, 281-290 https://doi.org/10.2307/1352343
  2. Kim, G. B., K. A. Maruya, R. F. Lee, J. H. Lee and C. H. Koh, 1999, Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Kyeonggi Bay, Korea, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 38, 7-15 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00077-0
  3. Budzinski, H., I. Jones, J. Bellocq, C. Pierard and P. Garrigues, 1997, Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary, Mar. Chem., 58, 85-97 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(97)00028-5
  4. Soclo, H. H., P. H. Garrigues and M. Ewald, 2000, Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine sediments: case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 40, 387-396 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00200-3
  5. Potter, T. L. and K. E. Simmons, 1998, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group Series-Composition of Petroleum Mixtures, Vol. 2, USA
  6. Mantseva, E., A. Malanichev and N. Vulykh, 2002, Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment, MSC-E, Russia
  7. U. S. EPA (Environment Protection Agency) Method 8100, 1986, Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, USA
  8. Moreda, J. M., A. Arranz, S. De Betono, A. Cid and J. F. Arranz, 1998, Chromatographic determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sewage sludge, Sci. Tot. Environ., 220, 33-43 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00238-1
  9. Fang, M. D., C. L. Lee and C. S. Yu, 2003, Distribution and source recognition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Hsin-ta Harbour and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan, Mar. Pollut,. 46, 941-953 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00099-7
  10. Page, D. S., P. D. Boehm, G. S. Douglas, A. E. Bence, W. A. Burns and P. J. Mandkiewicz, 1999, Pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments record past human activity: A case study in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 38, 247-260 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00142-8
  11. Park, S. S., Y. J. Kim and C. H. Kang, 2002, Atmospheric polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in Seoul, Korea, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2917-2924 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00206-6
  12. Macias-Zamora, J. V., E. Mendoza-Vega and J. A Villaescusa-Celaya, 2002, PAHs composition of surface marine sediments: a comparison to potential local sources in Todos Santos Bay, B. C., Mexico, Chemosphere, 46, 459-468 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00069-8
  13. Readrnan, J. W., G. Fillmann, I. Tolosa, J. Bartocci, J. P. Villeneuve, C. Catinni and L. D. Mee, 2002, Petroleum and PAH contamination of the Black Sea, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 44, 48-62 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00189-8
  14. Chen, Y., X. Bi, B. Mai, G. Sheng and J. Fu, 2004, Emission characterization of particulate/ gaseous phase and size association for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion, Fuel, 83, 781-790 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2003.11.003
  15. Sjogren, M., H. Li, U. Rannug and R. Westerholm, 1995, A multivariate statistical analysis of chemical composition and physical characteristics of ten diesel fuels, Fuel, 74, 983-989 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)00056-B
  16. Rhead, M. M. and S. A. Hardyl, 2003, The sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds in diesel engine emissions, Fuel, 82, 385-393 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00314-9
  17. Wong, P. K. and J. Wang, 2001, The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lubricating oil over time-a comparison of supercritical fluid and liquid-liquid extraction methods, Environ. Pollut., 112, 407-415 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00142-1
  18. McGrath, T., R. Sharma and M. Hajaligol, 2001, An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PARs) from pyrolysis of biomass materials, Fuel, 80, 1787-1797 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(01)00062-X
  19. Webber, M. D., H. R. Rogers, C. D. Watts, A. B. A. Boxall, R. D. Davis and R. Scoffin, 1996, Monitoring and prioritisation of organic contaminants in sewage sludges using specific chemical analysis and predictive, non-analytical methods, Sci. Tot. Environ., 185, 27-44 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(96)05040-1
  20. Perez, S., M. Guillamon and D. Barcelo, 2001, Quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants, J. Chromatogr., 938, 57-65 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01338-3
  21. Mangas, E., M. T. Vaquero, L. Comellas and F. Broto-Puig, 1998, Analysis and fate of aliphatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge-amended soils, Chemosphere, 36, 61-72 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00350-0
  22. Tolosa, L, M. Bayonaj and J. Albaiges, 1996, Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur/oxygen derivatives in Northern Mediterranean sediments: Spatial and temporal variability, fluxes, and budgets, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 2495-2503 https://doi.org/10.1021/es950647x
  23. Zdrahal, Z., P. Karasek, L. Lojkova, M Buckova, Z. Vecera and J. Vejrosta, 2000, Pressurised liquid extraction of ketones of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils, J. Chromatogra., 893, 201-206 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00748-2
  24. Motelay-Massei, A., D. Olivon, B. Garban, M. J. Teil, M. Blanchard and M. Chevreuil, 2004, Distribution and spatial trends of PAHs and PCBs in soils in the Seine River basin, France, Chemosphere, 55, 555-565 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.11.054
  25. Rogers, H. R., 1996, Sources, behaviour and fate of organic contaminants during sewage treatment and in sewage sludges, Sci. Tot. Environ., 185, 3-26 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(96)05039-5
  26. Sweetman, A. J., 1994, Development and application of a multi-residue analytical method for the determination of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 4-nonylphenol in digested sewage sludges, Wat. Res., 28, 343-353 https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)90272-0
  27. Perez, S., M. Farre, M. J. Garcia and D. Barcleo, 2001, Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge and their contribution to its toxicity in the $ToxAlert^{\circledR}$ 100 bioassay, Chemosphere, 45, 705-712 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00152-7
  28. Tavares, Jr. M., J. P. Pinto, A. L. Souza, I. S. Scarminio and M. C. Solei, 2004, Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel engine in a bus station, Londrina, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5039-5044 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.06.020
  29. Aceve, M., J. Grimalt, J. Albaiges, F. Broto and L. Comellas, 1988, Analysis of hydrocarbons in aquatic sediments: II. Evaluation of common preparative procedures for petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons, J. Chromatogra., 436, 503-509 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)94612-0
  30. Berset, J. D. and R. Holzer, 1999, Quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludges using supercritical fluid extraction and mass spectrometric detection, J. Chromatogr., 852, 545-558 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00641-X
  31. Bouloubassi, I., J. Fillaux and A. Saliot, 2001, Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary East China Sea, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 42, 1335-1346 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00149-7
  32. Bright, D. A. and N. Healy, 2003, Contaminant risks from biosolids land application: Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Great Vancouver, British Columbia, Environ. Pollut., 126, 39-49 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00148-9
  33. Luca, G., A. Furesi, R. Leardi, G. Micera, A. panzanelli, P. C. Piu and G. Sanna, 2004, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assessment in the sediments of the Porto Torres Harbor (Northern Sardinia, Italy), Mar. Chem., 86, 15-32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2003.11.001