Concentration and Seasonal Variation of Particle PCBs in Air

  • Yeo Hyun-Gu (Environmental Research Center, Environmental Engineering, National Hankyong University) ;
  • Chun Man-Young (Environmental Research Center, Environmental Engineering, National Hankyong University)
  • 발행 : 2005.03.01


Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were monitored in Ansung-city, Kyonggi province during the 2001/2002 to characterize the concentration distribution and seasonal variation of particle polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Average concentration of particle bound PCB showed maximum value for penta-CBs and minimum value for octa-CBs. Seasonal contributions $(%\)$ of total particle PCBs showed the highest value in winter months and lowest value in summer month, This result indicated that concentration of total particle PCBs increased with decreasing temperature in the atmosphere. Therefore, particle PCBs were easily formed by the condensation of gas phase PCBs in winter months. The total particle PCBs exhibited an inverse correlation with temperature (p<0.01) which suggested that particle PCBs were easily formed by condensation of gaseous PCBs in winter months.



  1. Chen S., L. Hsieh, and P. Hwang (1996) Concentration, phase distribution, and size distribution of atmosphere polychlorinated biphenyls measured in Southern Taiwan. Environ Sci Technol, 22, 411-423
  2. Cotham W.E. and T.F. Bidleman (1995) Polychlorianted aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at an Urban and a Rural Site near Lake Michigan. Environ Sci Technol, 29, 2782-2789
  3. Falconer R.L. and T.F. Bidleman (1994) Vapor pessure nd predicted particle/gas distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls congeners as functions of temperature and orthochlorine substitution. Atmos Environ, 28, 547-554
  4. Grenier L.K. and Chevreuil M. (1997) Behavior and spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyls and lindane in the urban atmosphere of the Paris area, France, Atmos Environ., 31, 3787-3802
  5. Harrad, S.J., A.P. Sewart, R. Alcock, R. Boumphrey, V. Burnett, R. Duarte-Davidson, C. Halsall, G. Sanders, K. Waterhouse. S.R. Wild, and K.C. Jones (1994) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British environment: sinks, sources and temporal trends. Environ. Poll. 85, 131 -146
  6. Hermanson M.H. and R.A. Hites (1989) Long-term measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in the vicinity of superfund dumps. Environ Sci Technol, 23, 1253- 1258
  7. Holsen T.M., K.E. Noll, S. Liu, and W. Lee (1991) Dry deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas. Environ Sci Technol, 25, 1075-1081
  8. Ikonomou H.G., P. Sather, J-E. Oh, W-Y. Choi, and Y-S. Chang (2002) PCB levels and congener pattern from Korean municipal waste incinerator stack emissions, Chemosphere, 49, 205 -216
  9. Kaupp H. and M.S (1999) McLachlan Gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs, Chemosphere, 38, 341 1-3421
  10. Kong S-B., B-H. Cho, and Y-S. Chang (1999) Study on the level and distribution of PCBs in Korean environmental matrices, Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 21, 2131-2141
  11. Kouimtzis T.H., D. Voutsa, C.H. Balafoutis, and L. Muller (2002) PCDD/Fs and PCBs in airborne particulate matter of the Greater Thessaloniki Area, N. Greece. Chemosphere, 47, 193-205
  12. Lee W.J., J.L. Sue, Y.Y. Chen. Y.F. Wang, H.L. Sheu, C.C. Su, and Y.C. Fan (1996) Polychlorinated biphenyls in the ambient air of petroleum refinery, urban and rural Areas. Atmos Environ, 30, 2371 -2378
  13. Lohmann R., T. Harner, O.T. Gareth, and C.J. Kevin (2000) A comparative study of the gas-particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs, Environ Sci Technol, 34, 4943 -4951
  14. Mandalakis M., M. Tsapakis, A. Tsoga, and E.G. Stephanou (2002) Gas/particle concentrations and distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere of Athens (Greece). Atmos Environ, 36, 4023-4035
  15. Oh J.E., Y .S. Chang, E.J. Kim, and D.W. Lee (2002) Distribution of polychlorinated dibenzop-dioxins and dibezofuran (PCDDI/Fs) in different sizes of airborne particles. Atmos Environ, 36, 5109-5117
  16. Pankow J.F. and T.F. Bidleman (1992) Interdependence of the slopes and intercepts from log -log correlations of measured gas-particle partitioning and vapor pressure 1. Theory and analysis of available data. Atmos Environ, 26, 1071 - 1080
  17. Park S.S., Y.J. Kim, and C.H. Kang (2002) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Seoul, Korea. Atmos Environ, 36, 2917-2924
  18. Park J.S. and J.G. Kim (2002) Regional measurements of PCDD/Fs concentrations in Korea: Atmosphere and comparison with gasparticle partitioning models. Chemosphere, 49,755-764
  19. Robert G.M., V. Burnett, T. Harner, and C.J. Kevin (2000) Short-term temperature dependent air-surface exchange and atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated naphthalenes and organochlorine pesticides. Environ Sci Technol, 34, 393-398
  20. Simcik M.F., Th.P. Franz, H. Zhang, and S.J. Eisenreich (1998) Gas-particle partitioning of PCBs and PAHs in the Chicago urban and adjacent coastal atmosphere: State of equilibrium. Environ Sci Technol, 32, 251-257
  21. Shin H.J., S.S. Park, S.M. Yi, and Y.P. Kim (2002) Spatial distribution and particulate PCBs concentration and their dry deposition fluxes in Korea, Journal of Korean Society of Environ Eng, 24, 1731 - 1742
  22. Totten L.A., P.A. Brunciak, C.L. Gigliotti, J. Dachs, T.R. Glenniv, E.D. Nelson, and S.J. Eisenreich (2001) Dynamic air-water exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Environ Sci Technol, 35, 3834-3840
  23. Venkataraman C. and S. Friedlander (1994) Size Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Elemental Carbon. 2. Ambient Measurement and Effects of Atmospheric Processes. Environ Sci Technol, 28, 563-572
  24. Yeo H-.G., M.K. Choi, M.Y. Chun, and Y. Sunwoo (2002a) The Distribution Characterisitcs of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rural Atmosphere, Journal of Korean Society for Atmos Environ, 18, 143-151
  25. Yeo H-.G., M.K. Choi, M.Y. Chun, K.C. Cho, T. W. Kim, and Y. Sunwoo (2002b) Temperature Dependence of PCBs in Urban Area of Seoul City, Journal of Korean Society for Atmos Environ, 18, 193-204
  26. Yeo H-.G., M.K. Choi, M.Y. Chun, and Y. Sunwoo (2002c) Source Characteristics in Using Temperature Dependence of Atmospheric PCBs at Urban and Rural Area, Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineering, 24, 813-825
  27. Yeo H-.G., M.K. Choi, M.Y. Chun, and Y.Sunwoo (2003a) Gas/Particle Concentrations and Partitioning of PCBs in the Atmosphere of Korea. Atmos Environ, 37, 3559-3568
  28. Yeo H-G., M.K. Choi, M.Y. Chun, and Y. Sunwoo (2003b) Concentration Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and their Relationship with Temperature in Rural Air of Korea, Atmos Environ, 37,3831 -3839
  29. Yeo H-G, M.K. Choi, M.Y. Chun, K.C. Cho, T.W Kim, and Y. Sunwoo (2004) Concentration characteristics of atmospheric PCBs for urban and rural area, Korea, the Science of the Total Environment, 324, 261 -270