Competitive Adsorption of Multi-species of Heavy Metals onto Sandy Clay Loam and Clay Soils

사질식양토와 식토에서 중금속 이온의 다중 경쟁 흡착

  • Chung, Doug Y. (Dept. of Bioenvironmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Noh, Hyun-Hee (Dept. of Bioenvironmental Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life sciences, Chungnam National University)
  • 정덕영 (충남대학교 농업생명과학대학 생물환경화학전공) ;
  • 노현희 (충남대학교 농업생명과학대학 생물환경화학전공)
  • Received : 2005.07.25
  • Accepted : 2005.09.16
  • Published : 2005.10.30


We conducted this investigation to observe competitive adsorption phenomena among the heavy metals onto the available sorption sites of soil particle surfaces in sandy clay loam and clay soil collected from Nonsan city, Chungnam and Yoosung, Daejeon in Korea, respectively. Polluted and contaminated soils can often contain more than one heavy metal species, resulting in competition for available sorption sites among heavy metals in soils due to complex competitive ion exchange and specific sorption mechanism. And the adsorption characteristics of the heavy metals were reported that the selectivity for the sorption sites was closely related with electropotential and electro negativity carried by the heavy metals. The heavy metals were treated as single, binary and ternary systems as bulk solution phase. Adsorption in multi-element system was different from single-element system as Cr, Pb and Cd. The adsorption isotherms showed the adsorption was increased with increasing equilibrium concentrations. For binary and ternary systems, the amount of adsorption at the same equilibrium concentration was influenced by the concentration of individual ionic species and valence carried by the respective heavy metal. Also we found that the adsorption isotherms of Cd and Pb selected in this experiment were closely related with electronegativity and ionic potential regardless number of heavy metals in solution, while the adsorption of Cr carried higher valance and lower electro negativity than Cd and Pb was higher than those of Cd and Pb, indicating that adsorption of Cr was influenced by ionic potential than by electronegativity. Therefore adsorption in multi-element system could be influenced by electronegativity and ionic potential and valance for the same valance metals and different valance, respectively. But it still needs further investigation with respect to ionic strength and activity in multi-element system to verify sorption characteristics and reaction processes of Cr, especially for ternary system in soils.

두 가지 이상의 중금속이온이 토양에 존재할 때 토양입자표면에 흡착되는 중금속 이온은 복합적인 경쟁이온치환과 특정결합기작에 따라 흡착량이 결정된다. 본 연구는 충남 논산과 대전시 유성에 소재하는 밭토양에서 채취한 사질식양토와 식토를 공시토양으로 하여 중금속의 다중경쟁흡착특성을 조사하였다. 경쟁흡착은 조사 대상 중금속인 Cr, Cd, 및 Pb를 토양용액에 처리 농도를 달리하여 단일, 이중, 삼중체계로 처리하였다. 등온흡착은 평형농도가 증가함에 따라 흡착이 증가하는 경향을 보여주었으며 이중과 삼중체계에서는 동일 평형농도에서 흡착량은 각각의 중금속이온의 농도와 중금속 전하에 의해 영향을 받는 것으로 조사되었다. 3가지 중금속이온의 이중경쟁 흡착특성은 전기음성도는 낮으나 이온포텐셜이 높은 Cr 이온이 경쟁이온 보다 선택적 흡착특성을 보여주고 있으며 Cd와 Pb가 Cr 흡착에 미치는 영향은 유사한 것으로 조사되었다. 따라서 본 연구 결과 3중 경쟁 흡착 시 중금속 이온의 흡착량이 단일과 이중 경쟁흡착보다 증가하는 특성을 구명하기 위해서는 다중 형태로 존재하는 중금속이온의 흡착기작과 다중 형태상의 중금속이온의 반응식, 그리고 반응식에 따른 가수분해상수를 구하여 흡착정도와 경쟁 상태에 대한 추가 연구가 필요하다. 결론적으로 다중 중금속이온이 존재하는 상태 하에서 흡착친화도는 토양 내 중금속이온의 이동성과 불용화 및 가용화 사이의 분배특성에 영향을 주는 것으로 판단되었다.



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