Effect of a trivalent (FPV, FHV, FCV) inactivated vaccine in kittens

고양이 3종(FPV, FHV, FCV) 불활화 백신의 효과

  • Accepted : 2005.08.22
  • Published : 2005.09.22


This study tested the effect of a trivalent (feline panleukopenia; FPV, feline viral rhinotracheitis; FHV, feline calicivirus infection; FCV) inactivated vaccine in cats. The vaccine was tested for the safety in guinea pigs, mice and cats. Also, it was tested for the efficacy in cats. The vaccine was inoculated to cats at 7~9 and 10~12 weeks of age (conventional schedule) and the serological response to vaccination was assessed and was compared to the unvaccinated group. All cats were bled by jugular venipuncture for FPV, FHV and FCV specific serological test (virus neutralizing antibody, VN) at 7~9, 10~12 and 13~15 weeks. After last bleeding, all cats were inoculated with each virus (FPV : orally $2ml\;10^{7.5}\;TCID_{50}/ml$, FHV : nasally $1ml\;10^{7.0}\;TCID_{50}/ml$ and FCV : nasally $1ml\;10^{7.0}\;TCID_{50}/ml$). The Vaccine verified excellent protective effect in guinea pigs, mice and cats. The VN antibody titers of the unvaccinated group cats against FPV, FHV and FCV were <2~16, on the other hand the vaccinated group cats were $512{\sim}{\geq}4096$, 64~1024 and 64~1024, respectively. When all cats were challenged with virulent viruses, the survival rates of the vaccinated group cats were over 80%, while the survival rates of the unvaccinated group cats were less 20%. The typical clinical signs were not observed in the vaccinated group cats, but the typical clinical signs and histopathological lesions were observed in the unvaccinated group cats. As the result of tests, the VN values obtained in this study appeared to be high enough to protect cats from viral challenges. The trivalent (FPV, FHV, and FCV) inactivated vaccine seemed to be very effective, for prevention of feline viral diseases (FPV, FHV, and FCV).



  1. Binns SH, Dawson S, Speakman AJ, Cuevas LE, Hart CA, Gaskell CJ, Morgan KL, Gaskell RM. A study of feline upper respiratory tract disease with reference to prevalence and risk factors for infection with feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus. J Feline Med Surg 2000, 2, 123-133 https://doi.org/10.1053/jfms.2000.0084
  2. Byron EE, Airikkala MI, Harder TC, Amerongen G, Osterhaus AD. A candidate phocid herpesvirus vaccine that provides protection against feline herpesvirus infection. Vaccine 2002, 20, 943-948 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00378-4
  3. Cai Y, Fukushi H, Koyasu S, Kuroda E, Yamaguchi T, Hirai K. An etiological investigation of domestic cats with conjuctivitis and upper respiratory tract disease in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 2002, 64, 215-219 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.64.215
  4. Chris H, Dave H. Detection of nucleotide polymorphisms in feline calicivirus isolates by reverse transcription PCR and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe. J Virol Methods 2003, 109, 261-263 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(03)00051-X
  5. Chris H, Philippa L, Severine T, Dave H. Melting curve analysis of feline calicivirus isolates detected by real-time reverse transscription PCR. J Virol Methods 2002, 106, 241-244 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(02)00167-2
  6. Coutts AJ, Dawson S, Willoughby K, Gaskell RM. Isolation of feline respiratory viruses from clinically healthy cats at UK cat shows. Vet Rec 1994, 135, 555-556
  7. Dawson S, Willoughby K, Gaskell RM, Wood G, Chalmers WSK. A field trial to assess the effect of vaccination against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and felinepanleucopenia virus in 6-week-old kittens. J Feline Med Surg 2001, 3, 17-22 https://doi.org/10.1053/jfms.2000.0154
  8. Doultree JC, Druce JD, Birch CJ, Bowden DS, Marshall JA. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J Hospital Infection 1999, 41, 51-57 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(99)90037-3
  9. Gaskell RM, Povey RC. Transmission of feline viral rhinotrachitis. Vet Rec 1982, 111, 359-362 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.111.16.359
  10. Hamano M, Maeda K, Mizukoshi F, Une Y, Mochizuki M, Tohya Y, Akashi H, Kai K. Experimental infection of recent field isolated of feline herves-virus type 1. J Vet Med Sci 2003, 65, 939-943 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.65.939
  11. Hofmann-Lehmann R, Fehr D, Grob M, Elgioli M, Packer C, Martenson JS, O'Brien SJ, Lutz H. Prevalance of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, cornavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infection in free-ranging lions in east Arica. Clini Diagn Lab Immunol 1996, 3, 554-562
  12. Hohdatsu T, Sato K, Tajima T, Koyama H. Neutralizing feature of commercially available FCV vaccine immune sera against FCV field isolates. J Vet Med Sci 1999, 61, 299-301 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.61.299
  13. Horiuchi M, Yuri K, Soma T, Katae H, Nagasawa H, Shinagawa M. Differentiation of vaccine virus from field isolates of feline panleukopenia virus by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Vet Mic 1996, 53, 283-293 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(96)01225-4
  14. Ikeda Y, Miyazawa T, Kurosawa K, Naito R, Hatama S, Kai C, Mikami T. New quantitative methods for detection of feline parvovirus(FPV) and virus neutralizing antibody against FPV using a feline T lymphoidcell line. J Vet Med Sci 1998, 60, 973-974 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.60.973
  15. Ikeda Y, Shinozuka J, Miyazawa T, Kurosawa K, Izumiya Y, Nishimura Y, Nakamura K, Fujita K, Doi K, Mikami T. Apoptosis in feline panleukopenia virus-infected lymphocytes. J Virol 1998, 72, 6932-6936
  16. Kreutz LC, Seal BS. The pathway of feline calicivirus entry. Virus Res 1995, 35, 63-70 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1702(94)00077-P
  17. Kreutz LC, Seal BS, Mengeling WL. Early interaction of FCV with cells in culture. Arch Virol 1994, 136, 19-34 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01538814
  18. Liangbiao HU, Esposito JJ, Scott FW. Raccoon Poxvirus feline panleukopenia virus VP2 recombinant protects cats against FPV challenge. Virology 1996, 218, 248-252 https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1996.0186
  19. Lutz H, Castelli I, Ehrensperger F, Pospischilb A, Rosskop M, Siegld G, Grob M, Martinod S. Panleukopenia-like syndrome of FeLV caused by coinfection with FeLV and feline panleukopenia virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1995, 46, 21-33 https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(94)07003-P
  20. Mochizuki M, Horiuchi M, Hiragi H, San Gabriel MC, Yasuda N, Uno T. Isolation of canine parvovirus from a cat manifesting clinical signs of feline panleukopenia. J Clinical Micbiol 1996, 2101-2105
  21. Mochizuki M, Kawakami K, Hashimoto M, Ishida T. Recent Epidemiological status of feline upper respiratory infection in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 2000, 62, 801-803 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.62.801
  22. Nakamura K, Ikeda Y, Miyazawa T, Nguyen NT, Duong DD, Le KH, Vo SD, Phan LV, Mikami T, Takahashi E. Comparison of prevalance of feline hervesvirus type 1, calicivirus and parvovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in Vietnam. J Vet Med Sci 1999, 6, 1313-1315
  23. Nakamura K, Ikeda Y, Miyazawa T, Tohya Y, Takahashi E, Mochizuki M. Characterisation of crossreactivity of virus neutralizing antibodies induced by feline panleukopenia virus and canine Parvoviruses. Res Vet Sci 2001, 71, 219-222 https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2001.0492
  24. Nakamura K, Sakamoto M, Ikeda Y, Sato E, Kawakami K, Miyazawa T, Tohya Y, Takahashi E, Mikami T, Mochizuki M. Pathogenic potential of canine Parvovirus types 2a and 2c in domestic cats. Clini Diagn Lab Immunol 2001, 8, 663-668
  25. Pedersen NC, Hawkins KF. Mechanisms for persistence of acute and chronic feline calicivirus infections in the face of vaccination. Vet Microbiol 1995, 47, 141-156 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1135(95)00101-F
  26. Pedersen NC, Sato R, Foley JE, Poland AM. Common virus infections in cats, before and after being placed in shelters, with emphasis on feline enteric coronavirus. J Feline Med and Surg 2004, 6, 83-88 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2003.08.008
  27. Powell CC, Kordick DL, Lappin MR. Inoculation with Bartonella henselae followed by feline herpesvirus 1 fails to activate ocular toxoplasmosis in chronically infected cats. J Feline Med Surg 2002, 4, 107-110 https://doi.org/10.1053/jfms.2001.0154
  28. Radford AD, Sommerville L, Ryvar R, Cox MB, Johnson DR, Dawson S, Gaskell RM. Endermic infection of a cat colony with a feline calicivirus closely related to an isolate used in live attenuated vaccines. Vaccine 2001, 19, 4358-4362 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00191-8
  29. Reade B, Bowers RG, Bgon M, Gaskell R. A Model of disease and vaccination for infections with acute and chronic phases. J Theor Biol 1998, 190, 355-367 https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.1997.0557
  30. Satoa E, Yokoyama N, Miyazawa T, Maeda K, Ikeda Y, Nishimura Y, Fujita K, Kohmoto M, Takahashi E, Mikami T. Efficient expression of the envelope protein of feline immunodefficiency virus in a recombinant feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) using the gC promoter of FHV-1. Virus Res 2000, 70, 13-23 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1702(00)00202-1
  31. Schorr-Evans EM, Poland A, Johnson WE, Pedersen NC. An epizootic of highly virulent feline calicivirus disease in a hospital setting in New England. J Feline Med Surg 2003, 5, 217-226 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1098-612X(03)00008-1
  32. Schunck B, Kraft W, Truyen U. A simple touchdown polymerase chain reaction for the detection of canine pravovirus and feline panleukopenia virus in feces. J Virol Methods 1995, 55, 427-433 https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-0934(95)00069-3
  33. Scott FW, Geissinger CM. Long-term immunity in cats vaccinated with an inactivated trivalent vaccine. Am J Vet Res 1999, 60, 652-658
  34. Sharp NJH, Davis BJ, Guy JS, Cullen JM, Steingold SF, Kornegay JN. Hydranencephaly and cerebella hypoplasia in two kittens attributed to intrauterine parvovirus infection. J Comp Path 1999, 121, 39-53 https://doi.org/10.1053/jcpa.1998.0298
  35. Sosnovtsev SV, Prikhod'ko EA, Belliot G, Cohen JI, Green KY. Feline calicivirus replication induces apoptosis in cultured cells. Virus Res 2003, 94, 1-10 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00115-1
  36. Stiles J. Feline Herpesvirus. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2003, 18, 178-185 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1096-2867(03)90014-4
  37. Sussman MD, Maes RK, Kruger JM. Vaccination of cats for feline rhinotracheitis results in quantitative reduction of virulent feline Herpesvirus-1 latency load after challenge. Virology 1997, 228, 379-382 https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1996.8393
  38. Sykes JE, Allen JL, Studdert VP, Browning GF. Detection of feline calicivirus, feline Herpesvirus-1 and Chlamydia psittaci mucosal swabs by multiplex RTPCR/PCR. Vet Microbiol 2001, 81, 95-108 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(01)00340-6
  39. Thiel H, Konig M. Caliciviruses an overview. Vet Microbiol 1999, 69, 55-62 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(99)00088-7
  40. Veir JK, Lappin MR, Foley JE, Getzy DM. Feline inflammatory polyps historical, clinical, and PCR findings for feline calici virus and feline herpesvirus-1 in 28 cases. J. Feline Med Surg 2002, 4, 195-199 https://doi.org/10.1053/jfms.2002.0172
  41. Weeks ML, Gallagher A, Romero CH. Sequence analysis of feline caliciviruses isolated from the oral cavity of clinically normal domestic cats(felis catus) in Florida. Res Vet Sci 2001, 71, 223-225 https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2001.0491
  42. Willemse MJ, Schooneveld SHB, Chalmers WSK, Sondermeijer PJA. Vaccination against feline leukaemia using a new feline herpesvirus type 1 vector. Vaccine 1996, 14, 1511-1516 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(96)00108-9