Four cases of hermaphroditism in dogs

개에 발생한 반음양증

  • Kwon, Young-Sam (Institute of Medical Science, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Park, Chun-Ho (School of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Sciences, Kitasato University) ;
  • Jang, Kwang-Ho (College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Oyamada, Toshifumi (School of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Sciences, Kitasato University) ;
  • Yoshikawa, Hiroyasu (School of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Sciences, Kitasato University)
  • Accepted : 2005.07.28
  • Published : 2005.09.22


Hermaphroditism was discovered in four dogs at surgery. For the classification of the type of hermaphroditism in each case, gross morphological and histopathological studies were performed. Based on the histopathological studies, two dogs were diagnosed as unilateral true hermaphroditism because they had mixed gonad containing testis and ovary in unilateral gonad. Whereas two dogs were diagnosed as male pseudohermaphroditism because they had only testis and uterus that had endometrial atrophy. After resection, further follow-up of several months revealed no evidence of clinical abnormalities.


  1. Cribiu EP, Chaffaux S. Intersexuality in domestic mammals. Reprod Nutr Dev 1990, 1, 51-61
  2. Hamerton JL, Dickson JM, Pollard CE, Grieves SA, Short RV. Genetic intersexuality in goats. J Reprod Fertil 1969, 7, 25-51
  3. Hare WC. Intersexuality in the dog. Can Vet J 1976, 17, 7-15
  4. Kim KR, Kwon Y, Joung JY, Kim KS, Ayala AG, Ro JY. True hermaphroditism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis in young children: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases. Mod Pathol 2002, 15, 1013-1019
  5. Meyers-Wallen VN, Hurtgen J, Schlafer D, Tulleners E, Cleland WR, Ruth GR, Acland GM. Sry-negative XX true hermaphroditism in a Pasa Fino horse. Equine Vet J 1997, 29, 404-408
  6. Meyers-Wallen VN, Patterson DF. Disorders of sexual development in the dog. In: Morrow DA (ed.). Current Therapy in Theriogenology 2. pp. 567-574, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986
  7. Meyers-Wallen VN, Patterson DF. XX sex reversal in the American cocker spaniel dog: phenotypic expression and inheritance. Hum Genet 1988, 80, 23-30
  8. Meyers-Wallen VN, Patterson DF. Sexual differentiation and inherited disorders of sexual development in the dog. J Reprod Fertil 1989, 39, 57-64
  9. Seldon JR. Intersexuality in the dog: classification, clinical presentation, and etiology. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1979, 1, 435-441
  10. Selden JR, Wachtel SS, Koo GC, Haskins ME, Patterson DF. Genetic basis of XX male syndrome and XX true hermaphroditism: evidence in the dog. Science 1978, 18, 644-646
  11. Sittmann K, Breeuwsma AJ, te Brake JH. On the inheritance of intersexuality in swine. Can J Genet Cytol 1980, 22, 507-527
  12. Sommer MM, Meyers-Wallen VN. XX true hermaphroditism in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991, 198, 435-438
  13. Tangner CH, Breider MA, Amoss MS. Lateral hermaphroditism in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982, 181, 70-71
  14. Thomas TN, Olson PN, Hoopes PJ. Lateral hermaphroditism and seminoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986, 189, 1596-1597
  15. Wachtel SS, Ono S, Koo GC, Boyse EA. Possible role for H-Y antigen in the primary determination of sex. Nature 1975, 257, 235-236