Estimation Method for Kinematic Constraint of Unknown Object by Active Sensing

미지 물체의 구속상태에 관한 실시간 추정방법

  • 황창순 (한국과학기술연구원 지능로봇연구센터)
  • Published : 2005.02.01


Control of a multi-fingered robotic hand is usually based on the theoretical analysis for kinematics and dynamics of fingers and of object. However, the implementation of such analyses to robotic hands is difficult because of errors and uncertainties in the real situations. This article presents the control method for estimating the kinematic constraint of an unknown object by active sensing. The experimental system has a two-fingered robotic hand suspended vertically for manipulation in the vertical plane. The fingers with three degrees-of-freedom are driven by wires directly connected to voice-coil motors without reduction gears. The fingers are equipped with three-axis force sensors and with dynamic tactile sensors that detect slippage between the fingertip surfaces and the object. In order to make an accurate estimation for the kinematic constraint of the unknown object, i.e. the constraint direction and the constraint center, four kinds of the active sensing and feedback control algorithm were developed: two position-based algorithms and two force-based algorithms. Furthermore, the compound and effective algorithm was also developed by combining two algorithms. Force sensors are mainly used to adapt errors and uncertainties encountered during the constraint estimation. Several experimental results involving the motion of lifting a finger off an unknown object are presented.


Robotic Hand;Regrasping;Control Method;Kinematic Constraint;Active Sensing


  1. Napier, J., 1980, 'Hands,' Princeton University Press, pp. 3-93
  2. Hirzinger, G., Brunner, B., Landzettel, K., Sporer, N., ButterfaB, J. and Schedl, M., 2003, 'Space Robotics-DLR's Telerobotic Concepts, Lightweight Arms and Articulated Hands,' Autonomous Robots, Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp.127-145
  3. Bluethmann, W., Ambrose, R., Diftler, M., Askew, S., Huber, E., Goza, M., Rehnmark, F., Lovchik, C. and Magruder, D., 2003, 'Robonaut: a Robot Designed to Work with Humans in Space,' Autonomous Robots, Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp. 179-197
  4. Carrozza, M.C., Dario, P., Vecchi, F., Roccella, S., Zecca, M. and Sebastiani, F., 2003, 'The CyberHand: on the Design of a Cybernetic Prosthetic Hand Intended to be Interfaced to the Peripheral Nervous System,' Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robot. and Syst., pp. 2642-2647
  5. Murray, R.M., Li, Z. and Sastry, S.S., 1994, 'A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation,' CRC Press
  6. Montana, D.J., 1995, 'The Kinematics of Multi-fingered Manipulation,' IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., Vol. 11, No.4, pp. 491-503
  7. Jia, Y.-B. and Erdmann, M., 1999, 'Pose and Motion from Contact,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 18, No.5, pp. 466-490
  8. Hwang, C.-S., 2005, 'Kinematics of Grasping and Manipulation of Curved Surface Object with Robotic Hand,' Trans. Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, Vol. 29, No.1, pp. 1-13
  9. Liu, Y.-H., 2000, 'Computing n-finger Form-closure Grasps on Polygonal Objects,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 19, No.2, pp.149-158
  10. Zheng, X.-Z., Nakashima, R. and Yoshikawa, T., 2000, 'On Dynamic Control of Finger Sliding and Object Motion in Manipulation with Multifingered Hands,' IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., Vol. 16, No.5, pp. 469-481
  11. Xydas, N. and Kao, 1., 1999, 'Modeling of Contact Mechanics and Friction Limit Surfaces for Soft Fingers in Robotics, with Experimental Results,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 18, No.8, pp. 941-950
  12. Michelman, P., 1998, 'Precision Object Manipulation with a Multifingered Robot Hand,' IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., Vol.14, No. 1, pp. 105-113
  13. Dixon, W.E., Walker, I.D., Dawson, D.M. and Hartranft, J.P., 2000, 'Fault Detection for Robot Manipulators with Parametric Uncertainty: a Prediction-error- based Approach,' IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., Vol. 16, No.6, pp. 689-699
  14. Haidacher, S. and Hirzinger, G., 2003, 'Estimating Finger Contact Location and Object Pose from Contact Measurements in 3-D Grasping,' Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robot. and Syst., pp. 1805-1810
  15. Erkmen, I., Erkmen, A.M. and Giinver, H., 2000, 'Robot Hand Preshaping and Regrasping Using Genetic Algorithms,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 19, No.9, pp. 857-874
  16. Harmati, I., Lantos, B. and Payandeh, S., 2002, 'On Fitted Stratified and Semistratified Geometric Manipulation Planning with Fingertip Relocations,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 21, No. 5-6, pp. 489-510
  17. Diftler, M.A. and Walker, I.D., 1999, 'Experiments in Aligning Threaded Parts Using a Robot Hand,' IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., Vol. 15, No.5, pp. 858-868
  18. Schutter, J.D., Bruyninckx, H., Dutre, S., Geeter, J.D., Katupitiya, J., Demey, S. and Lefebvre, T., 1999, 'Estimating Firstorder Geometric Parameters and Monitoring Contact Transitions during Force-controlled Compliant Motion,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 18, No. 12, pp.1161-1184
  19. Charlebois, M., Gupta, K. and Payandeh, S., 2000, 'On Estimating Local Shape Using Contact Sensing,' J. Robotic Systems, Vol. 17, No. 12, pp.643-658<643::AID-ROB1>3.0.CO;2-8
  20. Hwang, C.-S. and Sasaki, K., 2003, 'Control Program of Two-fingered Dexterous Manipulation with Primitive Motions,' Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robot. and Syst., pp.2902-2907
  21. Laliberte, T. and Gosselin, C.M., 1998, 'Simulation and Design of Underactuated Mechanical Hands,' Mech. Mach. Theory, Vol. 33, No. 1/2, pp.39-57
  22. Liu, Y-H., Xu, Y and Bergerman, M., 1999, 'Cooperation Control of Multiple Manipulators with Passive Joints,' IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., Vol. 15, No.2, pp.258-267
  23. Montambault, S. and Gosselin, C.M., 2001, 'Analysis of Underactuated Mechanical Grippers,' ASME J. Mechanical Design, Vol. 123, Sep., pp. 367-374
  24. Salisbury, J.K. and Craig, J.J., 1982, 'Articulated Hands: Force Control and Kinematic Issues,' Int. J. Robot. Res., Vol. 1, No.1, pp.4-17
  25. Hwang, C.-S., 2005, 'Evaluation and Design for Joint Configurations Based on Kinematic Analysis,' Trans. Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, Vol. 29, No.2, pp.176-187
  26. Sasaki, K., Hirota, T., Fujikake, Y. and Nakaki, H., 2001, 'Signal Processing for Slip and Contact Sensing and its Application to a Two-fingered Robotic Hand,' Integrated Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 8, No.4, pp.283-291
  27. Bicchi, A., 1990, 'Intrinsic Contact Sensing for Soft Fingers,' Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., pp.968-973