- Volume 15 Issue 1 Serial No. 54
Measurement of convergence was/is carried out manually throughout the world for tunnels under construction. However, manual method has certain limitations in terms of applicability for the tunnels in operation. This paper describes state of the art of convergence monitoring systems which are available for measuring displacement of existing tunnels. These technologies are analyzed as follows: 1 The Sofo system using the fiber optic sensors has been applied to the stress measurement of the tunnel lining. It has not yet been used for the monitoring of tunnel convergence because of its cost and reliability 2. A TPMS(Tunnel Profile Monitoring System) using tilt sensors and displacement sensors is used for the convergence monitoring of highway tunnels, subway tunnels and underground ducts. 3. A BCS(Bassett Convergence System) using a pair of tilt sensors can be used for the convergence monitoring of tunnels, however the accuracy of the measurement has to be improved because it uses AC input voltage during data acquisition. The system has to be validated before it can be applied to the tunnels in operation. Convergence monitoring systems using TPMS and/or BCS are recommended to be evaluated and improved by a series or tests in tunnels under construction in order to be applied to the main measuring section and the tunnels in operation.
convergence monitoring system;tilt sensors;displacement sensor;tunnel in operation
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