The Comparative Understanding between Red Ginseng and White Ginsengs, Processed Ginsengs (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)

홍삼과 백삼의 비교 고찰

Nam, Ki-Yeul

  • Published : 2005.03.01


Ginseng Radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been used in Eastern Asia for 2000 years as a tonic and restorative, promoting health and longevity. Two varieties are commercially available: white ginseng(Ginseng Radix Alba) is produced by air-drying the root, while red ginseng(Ginseng Radix Rubra) is produced by steaming the root followed by drying. These two varieties of different processing have somewhat differences by heat processing between them. During the heat processing for preparing red ginseng, it has been found to exhibit inactivation of catabolic enzymes, thereby preventing deterioration of ginseng quality and the increased antioxidant-like substances which inhibit lipid peroxide formation, and also good gastro-intestinal absorption by gelatinization of starch. Moreover, studies of changes in ginsenosides composition due to different processing of ginseng roots have been undertaken. The results obtained showed that red ginseng differ from white ginseng due to the lack of acidic malonyl-ginsenosides. The heating procedure in red ginseng was proved to degrade the thermally unstable malonyl-ginsenoside into corresponding netural ginsenosides. Also the steaming process of red ginseng causes degradation or transformation of neutral ginsenosides. Ginsenosides $Rh_2,\;Rh_4,\;Rs_3,\;Rs_4\;and\;Rg_5$, found only in red ginseng, have been known to be hydrolyzed products derived from original saponin by heat processing, responsible for inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ was also formed in red ginseng and was shown to exhibit vasorelaxation properties, antimetastatic activities, and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Recently, steamed red ginseng at high temperature was shown to provide enhance the yield of ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rg_5$ characteristic of red ginseng Additionally, one of non-saponin constituents, panaxytriol, was found to be structually transformed from polyacetylenic alcohol(panaxydol) showing cytotoxicity during the preparation of red ginseng and also maltol, antioxidant maillard product, from maltose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose, amino acid derivative, from arginine and maltose. In regard to the in vitro and in vivo comparative biological activities, red ginseng was reported to show more potent activities on the antioxidant effect, anticarcinogenic effect and ameliorative effect on blood circulation than those of white ginseng. In oriental medicine, the ability of red ginseng to supplement the vacancy(허) was known to be relatively stronger than that of white ginseng, but very few are known on its comparative clinical studies. Further investigation on the preclinical and clinical experiments are needed to show the differences of indications and efficacies between red and white ginsengs on the basis of oriental medicines.


Panax ginseng;red ginseng;white ginseng;ginsenosides;heat processing


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  5. Effects of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Red Ginseng vol.17, pp.3, 2012,
  6. Evidence of hydrolyzed traditional Korean red ginseng by malted barley on activation of receptor interacting proteins 2 and IkappaB kinase-beta in mouse peritoneal macrophages vol.2, pp.3, 2012,
  7. Ameliorative Effect of Black Ginseng on Diabetic Complications in C57BLKS/J-db/db Mice vol.25, pp.1, 2012,
  8. Immunomodulating Effects of Red Ginseng on the Regulation of Cytokine Release in vivo vol.25, pp.5, 2012,
  9. manufactured by steaming process on liver and kidney organs of ICR mice vol.28, pp.4, 2012,
  10. Dietary effect of red ginseng extracts mixed with torilis fructus and corni fructus on the epidermal levels of ceramides and ceramide related enzyme proteins in uv-induced hairless mice vol.45, pp.3, 2012,
  11. A Study on the Amendment Scheme of Ginsenoside Content Standard Regulation for Red Ginseng Products in Korea vol.28, pp.1, 2013,
  12. Antioxidant Activity of Panax ginseng Flower-buds Fermented with Various Microorganisms vol.42, pp.5, 2013,
  13. Development of puffed ginseng-rice snack from ginseng powder and map rice flour using steam and compression process vol.50, pp.2, 2013,
  14. Roots: A Comparative Study vol.30, pp.2, 2014,
  15. Comparative Study on Immuno-Enhancing Effects of Red Ginseng Fractions vol.43, pp.11, 2014,
  16. Induction of Thioredoxin Reductase 1 by Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract Regulates Cytoprotective Effects on Human Endothelial Cells vol.2015, pp.1741-4288, 2015,
  17. Physiological activities of 9 cycle steaming and drying black ginseng using Makgeolli vol.24, pp.5, 2015,
  18. Immunostimulation activity of a polysaccharide from fermented ginseng with Hericium erinaceum mycelia in solid-state culture vol.25, pp.1, 2016,
  19. Preventive effect of fermented red ginseng on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mouse vol.59, pp.2, 2016,
  20. Protective effects of red ginseng according to steaming time on HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritis vol.59, pp.4, 2016,
  21. Bioconversion, health benefits, and application of ginseng and red ginseng in dairy products vol.26, pp.5, 2017,
  22. Blood flow-improving activity of methyl jasmonate-treated adventitious roots of mountain ginseng vol.33, pp.2, 2017,
  23. Red ginseng powder fermented with probiotics exerts antidiabetic effects in the streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model vol.55, pp.1, 2017,
  24. Changes in ginsenoside patterns of red ginseng extracts according to manufacturing and storage conditions pp.2092-6456, 2017,
  25. Heat Processing Decreases Amadori Products and Increases Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Korean Red Ginseng vol.13, pp.6, 2010,
  26. Mycelium vol.17, pp.1, 2014,
  27. Inhibitory Activities of Water Extracts of Black Ginseng on HCl/Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastritis through Anti-Oxidant Effect vol.45, pp.9, 2016,
  28. Optimization of Extraction of Marker Compounds from Red Ginsengs by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology vol.45, pp.8, 2016,
  29. Aqueous Extract of Taegeuk Ginseng Inhibits Platelet Aggregation and Thrombus Formation pp.1557-7600, 2018,
  30. Determination of the transformation of ginsenosides in Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma during decoction with water using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry vol.41, pp.5, 2018,
  31. Anti-allergic Effects of Ginsenosides Extracted by High Temperature and High Pressure Method vol.34, pp.3, 2018,
  32. Ginsenoside Composition and Antiproliferative Activities of Explosively Puffed Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) vol.75, pp.4, 2010,
  33. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax Ginseng Meyer) on bisphenol A exposure and gynecologic complaints: single blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety vol.14, pp.1, 2014,