Changes of Various Chemical Components by the Difference of the Degree of Ripening and Harvesting Factors in Two Single-harvested Peppers (Capsicum annuum, L.)

일시 수확형 고추의 숙성도와 재배 요인에 따른 화학적 특성

  • Published : 2006.10.01


Changes in chemical components caused by the degree of ripening and harvesting factors in Korean single-harvested peppers (SR211 vs. SR213 varieties) were analyzed. The ASTA color values of SR211 and SR213 were 104.23 and 189.66, respectively. Capsaicinoids contents of red, mixed, and green peppers of SR211 were 174.89, 157.00, and 192.01 mg/100 g, respectively. However, those in SR213 contanined <5 mg/100 g. Free sugar contents of red, mixed, and green fruits were 15.99%, 14.85%, and 8.03% in SR211 and 21.44%, 19.43%, and 8.10% in SR213, respectively, and those in SR211 and SR213 increased positively with the degree of ripening. L-ascorbic acids contents of red, mixed and green fruits were 11.41, 11.04, and 6.71 mg/g in SR211, respectively and 7.47, 7.16, and 3.66 mg/g in SR213, respectively and those in SR211 and SR213 increased positively with the degree of ripening. Changes in ASTA color values, capsaicinoids and free sugars in two varieties were monitored for 3 years. The characteristics of pungency and high redness were maintained in two varieties. Most notably, capsaicinoid contents of SR211 harvested in 2004 were above 250 mg/100 g in both red and green fruits.


  1. Park JB, Lee SM, Kim S. Capsaicinoids control of red pepper powder by particle size. J. Korean Capsicum Res. Coop. 6: 51-62 (2000)
  2. Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin, a double-edged sword: toxicity, metabolism, and chemopreventive potential. Life Sci. 56: 1845-1855 (1995)
  3. Chung KM, Hwang JM. Quality of single-harvested red peppers by harvest time and fruit grade. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 919-923 (2002)
  4. Kim S, Park JH, Wang IK. Quality attributes of various varieties of Korean red pepper powders (Capsicum annuum L.) and color stability during sunlight exposure. J. Food Sci. 67: 2957-2961 (2002)
  5. Guevara RGL, Pardo-Gonzalez JE. Evolution of color during the ripening of selected varieties of paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 2049-2052 (1996)
  6. Shin HH, Lee SR. Quality attributes of korean red pepper according to cultivars and growing areas. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 23: 296-300 (1991)
  7. Markus F, Daood HG, Kapitany J, Biacs PA. Change in the caotenoid and antioxidant content of spice red pepper (Paprika) as a function of repening and some technological factors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 100-107 (1999)
  8. Murakami A, Nakashima M, Koshiba T, Maoka T, Nishino H, Yano M, Sumida T, Kim OK. Koshimizu K. Ohigashi H. Modifying effects of carotenoids on superoxide and nitric oxide generation from stimulated leukocytes. Cancer Lett. 149: 115-123 (2000)
  9. Isidoro E, Cotter DJ, Fernandez GCJ, Southward GM. Color retention in red chile powder as related to delayed harvest. J. Food Sci. 60: 1075-1077 (1995)
  10. Medvedeva NV, Andreenkov VA, Morozkin AD, Sergeeva EA, Prokofev II, Misharin AI. Inhibition of oxidation of human blood low density lipoproteins by carotenoids from paprika. Biomed Khim. 49: 191-200 (2003)
  11. AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC Intl. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA, USA (1995)
  12. Daood HG, Vinkler M, Markus J. Hebshi EA. Biacs PA. Antioxidant vitamin content of spice red pepper (paprika) as affected by technological and varietal factors. Food Chem. 55: 365-372 (1996)
  13. Howard LR, Smith RT, Wagner AB, Villalon B, Burens EE. Provitamin A and ascorbic acid content of fresh pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum) and processed jalapenos. J. Food Sci. 59: 362-365 (1994)
  14. Kim S, Park JH, Wang IK. Composition of main carotenoids in Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L.) and changes of pigment stability during the drying and storage process. J. Food Sci. 69: 39-44 (2004)
  15. Surh YJ. Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nature 3: 768-780 (2003)
  16. Chung KM, K won SK, Hwang JM. Quality of single-harvested red peppers. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 128-131 (2002)
  17. Lee Y. Howard LR, Villalon B. Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars. J. Food Sci. 60: 473-476 (1995)
  18. Choi SM, Jeon YS, Park KY. Comparison of quality of red pepper powders produced in Korea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32: 1251-1257 (2000)
  19. Food Composition Table. 6th ed. National rural living science institute. R.D.A. Republic of Korea (2001)
  20. Reverte S. Carbonell-Barrachina AA, Gimenez JL, Carvajal M. Colour content and stability in red pepper as affected by cultivar, harvest time, and titanum spray. Acta Alimentaria 29: 9-23 (2000)
  21. Cho YS, Cho MC, Suh HD. Current status and projects of national hot pepper industry in Korea. J. Korean Capsicum Res. Coop. 6: 1-27 (2000)
  22. Chung KM, Hwang JM. Quality of single-harvested red peppers by drying methods. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 329-333 (2003)
  23. Kim S, Lee KW, Park J, Lee HJ. Hwang IK. Effect of drying in antioxidant activity and changes of' ascorbic acid and colour by different drying and storage in Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 41: S90-95 (2006)
  24. Vincent KA, Ken AB. Rapid sample preparation method for oleoresins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35: 777-779 (1987)
  25. Chen CW, Lee TC, Ho CT. Antioxidative effect and kinetics study of capsanthin on the chlorophyll-sensitized photooxidation of soybean oil and selected flavor compounds. pp. 188-198 In: Spices, Flavor Chemistry and Antioxidant Properties. Risch SJ, Ho CT. (eds). ACS, Washington DC, USA. (1996)
  26. ASTA Analytical Method 20.1. Official Analytical Method of the American Spice Trade Association. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA (1986)