Anti-obesity and Cholesterol-lowering Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rats Fed with High Fat and Cholesterol Diets

발아현미의 섭취에 의한 흰쥐의 비만 억제 및 콜레스테롤 저하 효과

  • Published : 2006.10.01

Abstract

To investigate the anti-obesity and cholesterol-lowering effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups and fed with high fat and cholesterol diets for 5 weeks; control group fed with experimental diet, rice group fed with diet containing 50% rice, brown rice group fed with diet containing 50% brown rice and GBR group fed with diet containing 50% GBR. All groups showed no significant difference in body weight, but the GBR group showed the lowest value in body weight, $471.2{\pm}17.8\;g$. Body weight gain and FER of GBR group, $310.6{\pm}14.7\;g$ and $41.8{\pm}2.0%$, respectively, were also lower than those of other groups. Blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels of the GBR group were $54.0{\pm}23.4\;mg/dL$ and $64.8{\pm}14.7\;mg/dL$, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of rice groups and were the lowest values among the experimental groups. The weights of epididymal and kidney fat of GBR group also showed the lowest values compared to other groups. The liver total lipid and total cholesterol of the GBR group, $216.3{\pm}35.7\;mg/g$ liver and $16.5{\pm}0.7\;mg/g$ liver, respectively, were lower than those of other groups, and total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride of GBR group showed the same results. These results suggest that GBR diet reduces body weight and fat gain, and has cholesterol-lowering effect.

Keywords

germinated brown rice;anti-obesity;cholesterol-lowering;high fat and cholesterol diets

References

  1. Chua S, Leibel RL. Obesity genes: molecular and metabolic mechanism. Diabetes Rev. 5: 2-7 (1997)
  2. West DB, Delany JP, Camet PM, Blohm F, Truett AA, Scimeca J. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse. Am. J. Physiol. 275: R667-672 (2000)
  3. Park Y, Albright KJ, Storkson JM, Cook ME, Pariza MW. Changes in body composition in mice during feeding and withdrawal of conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids 34: 243-248 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-999-0359-7
  4. Birketvedt GS, Aaseth J, Florholmen JR, Rhttig K. Long-term effect of fibre supplement and reduced energy intake on body weight and blood lipids in overweight subjects. Acta Med. 43: 129-132 (2000)
  5. Suzuki K, Okadome H. Okunishi T. Nakamura S. Ohtsubo K. Development of a novel food material using germinated brown rice by twin-screw extrusion. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 50: 474-482 (2003) https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk.50.474
  6. Han KH, Oh JC, Ryu CH. A study on the optimization for preparation conditions of germinated brown rice gruel. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33: 1735-1741 (2004) https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2004.33.10.1735
  7. Kwon JY, Cheigh HS, Song YO. Weight reduction and lipid lowering effects of kimchi lactic acid powder in rats fed high fat diets. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 36: 1014-1019 (2004)
  8. Burstein M, Scholnick HR, Morfin R. Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. J. Lipid Res. 11: 583-589 (1970)
  9. Kovaes EMR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, de Vries M. Effect of 2-week ingestion of (-)-hydroxycitrate and (-)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety and food intake. Phvsiol. Behav. 74: 543-549 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(01)00594-7
  10. Seo JS, Bang BH, Yeo IB. Effect of improve obesity with sprout raw grains and vegetables. Korean J. Food Nutr. 14: 150-160 (2001)
  11. Dattilo MA, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoprotein: A meta analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56: 320-328 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/56.2.320
  12. Ohtsubo K, Suzuki K, Yasui Y. Kasumi T. Bio-functional components in the processed pre-germinated brown rice by a twin-screw extruder. J. Food Comp. Anal. 18: 303-316 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.10.003
  13. Yamada C, Izumi H, Hirano J, Mizukuchi A, Kise M, Matsuda T, Kato Y. Degradation of soluble proteins including some allergens in brown rice grains by endogenous proteolytic activity during germination and heat-processing. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 69: 1877-1883 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.69.1877
  14. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Kovacs EMR. The paradoxal effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake regulation in humans. Int. J. Obes. 24: S 189-192 (2000)
  15. Park KB. Oh SH. Production and characterization of GABA rice yogurt. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 14: 518-522 (2005)
  16. Miura D, Ito Y, Mizukuchi A, Kise M. Aoto H, Yagasaki K. Hypocholesterolemic action of pre-germinated brown rice in hepatoma-bearing rats. Life Sci. 79: 259-264 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2006.01.001
  17. Ha TY, Kim NY. The effects of uncooked grains and vegetables with mainly brown rice on weight control and serum components in Korean overweight/obese female. Korean J. Nutr. 36: 183-190 (2003)
  18. Vahouny GV, Roy T, Gallo LL, Story JA, Kritchevsky D, Cassidy MM. Dietary fiber III. Effect of chronic intake on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in the rat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 2182-2188(1980) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/33.10.2182
  19. Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE. Hu FB, Rosner B, Colditz G. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78: 920-927 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.5.920
  20. Aurisano N, Bertani A, Reggiani R. Anaerobic accumulation of 4-aminobutyrate in rice seedlings: causes and significance. Phytochemistry 38: 1147-1150 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(94)00774-N
  21. Folch J, Less M. Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226: 497-569 (1957)
  22. Anderson JW, Bridges SR. Plant fiber metabolites after hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Diebetes 30(suppl): 133-139 (1981)
  23. National Institute of Health. Methods for Voluntary Weight Loss and Control-Technology Assessment Conference Statement. Nutr. Today July/August, pp. 27-33 (1992)
  24. King DJ, Devaney N. Clinical pharmacology of sibutramine hydrochloride (BTS 54 525), a new antidepressant, in healthy volunteers. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 26: 607-611 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.1988.tb05303.x
  25. Saikusa T, Horino T, Mori Y. Accumulation of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid(GABA) in the rice germ during water soaking. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58: 2291-2292 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.58.2291
  26. Su T, Nakamura K. Kayahara H. Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice. brown rice and germinated brown rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 4808-4813 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049446f
  27. Rong N, Ausman LM, Nicolosi RJ. Oryzanol decreases cholesterol absorption and aortic fatty streaks in hamsters. Lipids 32: 303-309 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-997-0037-9
  28. Oh SH, Kim SH, Moon YJ, Choi WG. Change in the levels of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid and some amino acids by application of a glutamic acid solution for the germination of brown rice. Korean Soc. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 17: 49-53 (2002)
  29. Cha JY, Cho YS, Kim DJ. Effect of chicory extract on the lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr.30: 1220-1226(2001)
  30. Heidi O. Attitude of dietetics students and registered dieticians toward obesity. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95: 914-916 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00252-9
  31. Helms R, Whitington P, Mauer E. Enhanced lipid utilization in infants receiving oral L-carnitine during long-term parenteral nutrition. J. Pediatrics 109: 984-988 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(86)80281-5
  32. SAS Institute, Inc. SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. Cary, NC, USA ( 1993)