중학교 환경 교과서에 제시된 질문의 특성

Questioning Styles in the Middle School Environmental Textbooks

  • 허만규 (동의대학교 분자생물학과) ;
  • 허홍욱 (부산대학교 과학교육학부) ;
  • 문두호 (부산대학교 과학교육학부) ;
  • 문성기 (경성대학교 생물학과)
  • Huh, Man-Kyu (Department of Molecular Biology, Dong-eui University) ;
  • Huh, Hong-Wook (Department of Science Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Moon, Do-Hoo (Department of Science Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Moon, Sung-Gi (Department of Biology, Kyungsung University)
  • 발행 : 2006.09.30


The study is conducted to analyze the questioning styles in three middle school environmental textbooks in terms of frequency, type, and placement of questions. It is also to analyse and compare the kinds of scientific processes elicited by the questions in the topics of textbook. The instrument was the Textbook Questioning Strategies Assesment Instrument (TQSAI) which was developed the Cooperative Teacher Preparation Program, University of California. The mean number of questions per topic was 4.0 and the ratio of questions to sentences was 3.8%. The numbers of empirical and non-empirical questions were 52.5% and 47.5% for textbook D, 56.6% and 43.4% for textbook J, and 92.7% and 7.3% for textbook K, respectively. The open-hearted question was the highest in all types of questions for three middle school environmental textbooks. The explanatory question was the highest in all characteristics of questions. The types of various questions were distributed throughout textbooks including the green field, debate-discussion, examination, and so on.



  1. 허만규, 허홍욱, 오광중, 1997, 중학교 환경 교과서의 질문방략, 한국환경과학회지, 6, 107-112
  2. Blosser, P. E., 1991, How to ask right question, Washington, DC, NSTA
  3. Mayer, W. V., 1978, Biology teacher's handbook, 3rd ed., BSCS, 501pp
  4. BouSchwab, J. J., 1962, The teaching of science as inquiry, Cambridge, Harvard University, Press, Mass, 103pp
  5. BouJaoude, S., 2000, Conceptions of science teaching revealed by metaphors and by answers to open-ended questions, J. Sci. Teacher Edu., 11, 173-186
  6. 양미경, 1987, 교수학습 상황에서 질문이 갖는 의미와 역할, 교육개발, 9, 108-115
  7. Trowbridge, L. W. and R. W. Bybee, 1986, Becoming a secondary school science teacher, 4th ed., Columbus, Merill Publishing Company, OH, 278pp
  8. 박승재, 1991, 과학적 탐구사고력 평가, 서울대학교 사범대학 물리교육과 물리학습연구실, 271pp
  9. 김진만, 박승재, 1994, 물리 교과서의 질문 방략 비교 분석, 서울대학교 사범대학 과학교육 논총 19, 147-158
  10. 이무, 1992, 과학적 탐구 사고력 문항 형태에 관한 연구, 서울대학교 대학원 박사학위논문, 251pp
  11. 최돈형, 이상훈, 이민부, 허명, 장영기, 윤석희, 2004, 중학교 환경, 대한교과서(주), 239pp
  12. 정완호, 박구태, 박태윤, 남상미, 2004, 중학교 환경. (주)중앙교육진흥연구사, 264pp
  13. 김영민, 최병두, 정인철, 오용남, 곽상만, 2004, 중학교 환경, (주)교학사, 274pp
  14. Lowery, L. F. and W. H. Leonard, 1975, A study of questioning style among four width used biology textbooks, University of California Cooperative Teacher Preparation Program, Research Report QS-3, University of California, Berkeley, 199pp
  15. Shannon, C. E. and W. Weaver, 1949, The mathematical theory of communication, University Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 326pp
  16. Currie, D. J., 1991, Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness, American Naturalist, 137, 27-49
  17. Pielou, E. C., 1966, The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections, J. Theroret. Biol., 13, 131-144
  18. Zar, J. H., 1984, Biostatistical analysis, 2nd, Pretice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 718pp