Agent-based Shipment Algorithm for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Load Balancing

CVRP를 위한 에이전트 기반 Shipment 알고리듬 개발

  • Published : 2006.09.30


Load building is an important step to make the delivery supply chain efficient. We present a family of load makeup algorithms using market based control strategy, named LoadMarket, in order to build efficient loads where each load consists of a certain number of finished products having destinations. LoadMarket adopts Clark-Wright algorithm for generating initial endowment for Load Traders who cooperate to minimize either total travel distance or the variance with respect to the travel distances of loads by means of the spot market or double-sided auction market mechanism. The efficiency of the LoadMarket algorithms is illustrated using simulation based experiments.


  1. ACM (1999), Multi-agent systems on the Net and Agents in E-commercc, Communications of the ACM, 42(3)
  2. Bodin, L., Golden, B., Assa, A, and Ball, M. (1983), The state of the art in the routing and scheduling of vehicles and crews, Computers and Operations Research, 10(2), 63-211
  3. Chung, E. Y. and Park, Y. B. (2004), A Genetic algorithm for vehicle routing problems with mixed delivery and pick-up, Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 30, 346-354
  4. Clark, G. and Wright, J. W. (1964), Scheduling of vehicles from a central depot to a number of delivery points, Operations Research, 12, 568-581
  5. Clearwater, S. H., Costanza, R., Dixon, M., and Schroeder, B. (1996), Saving energy using market-based control. In Market-Based Control A Paradigm for Distributed Resource Allocation, World Scientific, Singapore
  6. Denning J. P. (2004), Network Laws, Communications of the ACM, 47(11)
  7. Even, G., Garg N., Konemann, J., Ravi, R., and Sinha, A. (2003), Covering graphs using trees and stars, In Proceedings of RANDOM-APPROX
  8. Flood, M. M. (1956), The Traveling Salesman Problem, Operations Research, 4, 61-75
  9. Hinkkanen, A., Kalakota, R., Saengcharoenrat, P., Stallaert, J., and Whinston, A. B. (1997), Distributed decision support systems for real-time supply chain management using agent technologies, Readings in Electronic Commerce, AW Computer and Engineering Publishing Group
  10. Huhns, M. N. and Singh, M. P. (1997), Readings in agents, Morgan Kaufman
  11. IEEE (1990), Intelligent systems and their applications. IEEE Expert December issue
  12. Jose, R. A. and Ungar, L. H. (1998), Auction-driven coordination for plant wide optimization, In Proceedings of Foundations of Computer- Aided Process Operation (FOCAPO), Snowbird, UT, USA
  13. Lee, Y-H. (2002), Market-based dynamic resource control of distributed multiple projects, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Industrial Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA
  14. Oh, S-C., Yce, S-T., Kumara, S., and Tew, J., A family of market-based shipment methodologies for delivery supply chain, In Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference, USA
  15. Ralphs, T. K., Kopman, L., Pulleyblank, W. R., and Trotter L. E. (2003), On the capacitated vehicle routing problem, Mathematical Programming Series B 94
  16. Reinelt, G. (1994), The traveling salesman, Computational Solutions for TSP Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 840, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York
  17. Ro, I. K. and Ye, S. Y. (1996), A Heuristic for vehicle routing problem, Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 22, 325-336
  18. Sandholm, T. (1993), An implementation of Contract Net Protocol based on marginal cost calculations, In Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Washington DC, USA
  19. Sauter, J. A., Parunak, H., Van, D., and Goic, J. (1999), ANTS in the supply chain, In Workshop on Agent for Electronic Commerce at Agents '99, Seattle, WA, USA
  20. Thangiah, S. R., Shmygelska, O., and Mennell, W. (2003), An agent architecture for vehicle routing problems, In Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Las Vegas, USA
  21. Tilley, K. J. (1996), Machining task allocation in discrete manufacturing systems, In Market-Based Control - A Paradigmfor Distributed Resource Allocation, World Scientific, Singapore
  22. Yee, S-T. (2002), Simulation applications in the automotive industry : establishment of product offering and production leveling principles via supply chain simulation under order-to-delivery environment, In Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference, USA
  23. Yoo, Y. S. and Ro, I. K. (1999), Vehicle routing problem using parallel genetic algorithm. Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, 25, 490-499