Field Study of Emission Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide by Pig Building Types

돈사 작업장 유형에 따른 암모니아와 황화수소의 실내농도 및 발생량에 관한 현장 조사

  • Kim, Ki Youn (Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Ajou University School of Medicine) ;
  • Park, Jae Beom (Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Ajou University School of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Chi-Nyon (Institute for Occupational Health, College of Medicine, Yonsei University) ;
  • Lee, Kyung Jong (Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Ajou University School of Medicine)
  • 김기연 (아주대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 박재범 (아주대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 김치년 (연세대학교 의과대학 산업보건연구소) ;
  • 이경종 (아주대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실)
  • Received : 2006.01.07
  • Accepted : 2006.03.28
  • Published : 2006.03.31

Abstract

The principal aim of this field study was to determine the concentrations and emissions of gaseous contaminants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the different types of pig buildings in Korea and allow objective comparison between Korea and the other countries in terms of pig housing types. This field study was performed from May to June and from September to October in 2002. Pig buildings investigated in this research were selected in terms of three criteria; manure removal system, ventilation mode and growth stage of pig. Measurements of concentration and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were done in 5 housing types and the visited farms were 15 sites per each housing type. Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were measured at three locations of the central alley in the pig building and emission rates of them were estimated by multiplying the average concentration($mg/m^3$) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate($m^3/h$) and expressed either per pig of liveweight 75kg(mg/h/pig) or per area($mg/h/m^2$). Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were averaged to 7.5 ppm and 286.5 ppb and ranged from 0.8 to 21.4 ppm and from 45.8 to 1,235 ppb, respectively. The highest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the mechanically ventilated buildings with slats; 12.1 ppm and 612.8 ppb, while the lowest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the pig buildings with deep-litter bed system(2.2 ppm) and the naturally ventilated pig buildings with manure removal system by scraper(115.2 ppb), respectively(p<0.05). All the pig buildings were investigated not to exceed the threshold limit values(TLVs) of ammonia(25 ppm) and hydrogen sulfide(10 ppm). The mean emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide per pig(75kg in terms of liveweight) and area($m^2$) from pig buildings were 250.2 mg/h/pig and 37.8 mg/h/pig and $336.3mg/h/m^2$ and $50.9mg/h/m^2$, respectively. The pig buildings with deep-litter bed system showed the lowest emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide(p<0.05). However, the emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the other pig buildings were not significantly different(p>0.05). Concentrations and emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were relatively higher in the pig buildings managed with deep-pit manure system with slats and mechanical ventilation mode than the different pig housing types. In order to prevent pig farm workers from adverse health effect caused by exposure to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in pig buildings, they should wear the respirators during shift and be educated sustainably for the guideline related to occupational safety.

References

  1. 김기연, 김치년. 겨울철 밀폐형 돈사작업장에서 발생되는 실내공기 오염물질의 변동. 한국산업위생학회지 2003;13(3):191-197
  2. 농림부. 2003. 가축사육통계
  3. Aarnink AJA, van der Berg AJ, Keen A, Hoeksman P, Verstegen MWA. Effect of slatted floor am on ammonia emission and on the excretory and lying behavior of growing pigs. J Agric Eng Res 1996; 64:299-3 10 https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1996.0071
  4. Avery GL, Merva GE, Genish JB. Hydrogen sulfide production in swine confinement units. Trans ASAE 1975;18:149-151 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.36544
  5. Bicudo JR, Schmidt DR, Gay SW, Gates RS, Jacobson LD, Hoff SJ. Air quality and emissions from livestock and poultry production waste management systems. National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management White Papers, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. 2002
  6. Bruce JM. Ventilation and temperature control criteria for pigs. In Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production. Butterworths, London, pp. 197-216.1981
  7. Buijsman, E. and Erisman, J. W. 1988. Wet deposition of ammonium in Europe. J Atmos Chem 1988; 6:265-280 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00053860
  8. Chang CW, Chung H, Huang CF, Su, HJJ. Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia. hydrogen sulfide and c d n dioxide in open style swine houses. Ann Occup Hyg 2001. 45(6):457465 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4878(00)00081-8
  9. Coleman RN, Feddes JJR, West BS. What is dour and the potential for its control? In Proceedings Western Branch Meeting. Canadian Society of Animal Production, Chilliwack(Abstract). 1991
  10. CrookB, Robertson JF, Glass SA, Botheroyd EM, Lacey J, Topping MD. Airbome dust, ammonia, microorganisms, and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1991;52(7):271-279 https://doi.org/10.1080/15298669191364721
  11. Donham KT, Popendorf WJ. Ambient levels of selected gases inside swine confinement buildings. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1985;46(11):658-661 https://doi.org/10.1080/15298668591395490
  12. Duchaine C, Grimard Y, Cornier Y. Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 2000;61(1):5&63 https://doi.org/10.1202/0002-8894(2000)061<0563:ROHCCO>2.0.CO;2
  13. Gay SW, Schmidt DR, Clanton CJ, Janni KA, Jacobson LD, Weisberg S. Odor, total reduced sulfur, and ammonia emissions from animal housing facilities and manure storage units in Minnesota. Appl Eng Agric 2003; 19(3):347-360
  14. Groenestein CM, Animal waste management and emission of ammonia from livestock housing systems: Field studies. In Proceedings of International Livestock Environment Symposium IV, Warwick, England, 6 9 July. ASAE. p.1169-1175. 1993
  15. Harssema H, van Eerden WJ, Klarenbeek JV. The relation between intensity of husbandry farming and damage of vegetation. IMAG Report 32, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 1981. Phillips VR. Control of gaseous emissions from livestock
  16. Hartung J, buildings and manure stores. J Agric Eng Res 1994; 57:173-189 https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1994.1017
  17. HeberAJ, Duggirala RK, Ni JQ, Spence ML, Haymore BL, Adamchuck VI, Bundy DS, Sutton AL, Kelly DT, Keener KM. Manure treatment to reduce gas emissions from large swine houses. In Proceedings on International Symposium on Ammonia and Odour control from Animal Production Facilities, 2, eds. Voermans JAM, Monteny G. p. 449-457. The Netherlands: Dutch Society of Agricultural Engineering (NVTL). 1997
  18. Koerkarnp, PWG, Metz JHM, Uenk GH, hllips VR, Holden MR, Sneath RW, Short JL, White RP, Hartung J, Seedorf J, Schrcder M. Linkert KH, Pederson S, Takai H, Johnsen JO, Wathes CM. Concentrations and emissions of ammonia in livestock buildings in Northem Europe. J Agric Eng Res 1998;70:79-95 https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1998.0275
  19. Louhelainen K, Kangas J, Veijanen A, Viilos P. Effect of In Situ Composting on Reducing Offensive Odors and Volatile Organic Compounds in Swineries. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 2001; 62(2): 159- 167
  20. Momson WD, Pine PD, Perkins S, Braithwaite LA, Smith JH, Waterfall D, Doucett CM. Gases and respirable dust in confinement buildings and the response of animals to such airborne contaminants. In Proceedings of International Livestock Environment Symposium IV, Warwick, England, 6 9 July. ASAE. p. 735-746. 1993
  21. Muck RE. Steenhuis TS. Nitrogen losses from manure storages. Agric. Wastes 1982; 4:4 1-54 https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-4607(82)90053-1
  22. Ni JQ, Heber AJ, Diehl CA, Lim 7T, Duggirala RK, Haymore BL. Characteristics of hydrogen sulphide concentrations in mechanically ventilated swine buildings. Can Biosys Eng 2002;44:611-619
  23. Ni JQ, Heber AJ, Diehl CA, Lim TT. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide release from pig manure in under-floor deep pits. J Agric Eng Res 2000; 77( 1 ):53-66 https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.2000.0561
  24. NIOSH. Sampling and chamcterization of bioaerosols. In Manual of Analflcal Method. Paul AJ. and Schafer MP (eds). Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. 1998
  25. NobletJ,Fortune H, Dubois S, Henry V. Nouvelles bases d'estimation des teneur en energie digestible metabolisable et nette des aliments pourle porc. INRA, Paris, pp. 1-106. 1989
  26. NordstmmGA, McQuitty JB. Manure Gases in the Animal Environment. Department of Agricultural and Engineering, University of Alberta. 1976
  27. Pedersen S. Dust and gases. In 'Climatization of Animal Houses: 2nd Report of CIGR Section II Working Group' eds. Christiaens JPA, Sallvik K. 2nd revised ed. Gent, Belium: State University of Gent, p. 11 1- 147. 1992
  28. SAS Institute Inc. SAS usds guide. SAS Inst., Inc., Gary, NC. 1999
  29. Stowell RR, Foster S. Ammonia emissions from a High-hse swine finishing facility. ASAE Paper No. 004080. St. Joseph, Mich. ASAE. 2000
  30. SwierstraD, Smits MCJ, Kroodsma W. Ammonia emission from cubicle houses for cattle with solid floors. J Agric Eng Res 1995; 62:127-132 https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1995.1071
  31. van Bmmen N, Burrough PA, Velthorst ET, van Dobben HF, de Wit T, Ridder TB, Reijnders HFR. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy through fall. Nature 1982;299:548-550 https://doi.org/10.1038/299548a0
  32. Verstegen MWA, Vanderhel W, Jongebreur AA, Enneman G. The influence of ammonia and humidity on activity and energy balance data in groups of pigs. Zeitschrift fur Xerphysiologie, Tieremahrung und Futtermittelkunde 1976 37:225-263
  33. Wathes CM, Jones O R , Webster AJF. Ventilation, air hygiene and animal health. Vet Rec Dec. 1998; p. 554-559
  34. Zhu T, Pattey E, Deesjardins RL. Relaxed eddy-accumulation technique for measuring ammonia volatilization. Environ Sci Technol 2000; 34: 199-203 https://doi.org/10.1021/es980928f