Field Study of Emission Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide by Pig Building Types

돈사 작업장 유형에 따른 암모니아와 황화수소의 실내농도 및 발생량에 관한 현장 조사

  • Kim, Ki Youn (Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Ajou University School of Medicine) ;
  • Park, Jae Beom (Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Ajou University School of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Chi-Nyon (Institute for Occupational Health, College of Medicine, Yonsei University) ;
  • Lee, Kyung Jong (Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Ajou University School of Medicine)
  • 김기연 (아주대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 박재범 (아주대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 김치년 (연세대학교 의과대학 산업보건연구소) ;
  • 이경종 (아주대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실)
  • Received : 2006.01.07
  • Accepted : 2006.03.28
  • Published : 2006.03.31


The principal aim of this field study was to determine the concentrations and emissions of gaseous contaminants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the different types of pig buildings in Korea and allow objective comparison between Korea and the other countries in terms of pig housing types. This field study was performed from May to June and from September to October in 2002. Pig buildings investigated in this research were selected in terms of three criteria; manure removal system, ventilation mode and growth stage of pig. Measurements of concentration and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were done in 5 housing types and the visited farms were 15 sites per each housing type. Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were measured at three locations of the central alley in the pig building and emission rates of them were estimated by multiplying the average concentration($mg/m^3$) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate($m^3/h$) and expressed either per pig of liveweight 75kg(mg/h/pig) or per area($mg/h/m^2$). Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were averaged to 7.5 ppm and 286.5 ppb and ranged from 0.8 to 21.4 ppm and from 45.8 to 1,235 ppb, respectively. The highest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the mechanically ventilated buildings with slats; 12.1 ppm and 612.8 ppb, while the lowest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the pig buildings with deep-litter bed system(2.2 ppm) and the naturally ventilated pig buildings with manure removal system by scraper(115.2 ppb), respectively(p<0.05). All the pig buildings were investigated not to exceed the threshold limit values(TLVs) of ammonia(25 ppm) and hydrogen sulfide(10 ppm). The mean emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide per pig(75kg in terms of liveweight) and area($m^2$) from pig buildings were 250.2 mg/h/pig and 37.8 mg/h/pig and $336.3mg/h/m^2$ and $50.9mg/h/m^2$, respectively. The pig buildings with deep-litter bed system showed the lowest emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide(p<0.05). However, the emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the other pig buildings were not significantly different(p>0.05). Concentrations and emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were relatively higher in the pig buildings managed with deep-pit manure system with slats and mechanical ventilation mode than the different pig housing types. In order to prevent pig farm workers from adverse health effect caused by exposure to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in pig buildings, they should wear the respirators during shift and be educated sustainably for the guideline related to occupational safety.


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