• Yoon, Young H. (Construction and Environment research division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology) ;
  • Park, Jae-Ro (Construction and Environment research division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology) ;
  • Kim, In-S. (Dept. of Environ. Sci. & Eng., Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST))
  • Published : 2006.06.30


Aerobic floc-like sludge was formed in a batch reactor and the effect of cations on the formation of aerobic floc-like sludge was studied. In order to enhance the formation (rate) of aerobic floc-like sludge, cations such as $K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$ were added to the seed sludge. It was found that $Ca^{2+}$ had positive effect on the formation of floc-like sludge, as measured by sludge volume index (SVI) for settle ability. The formation of floc-like sludge was confirmed by the microscopic observation after DAPI staining. The scattered forms of sludge samples at the initial stage became aggregated to form floes after $Ca^{2+}$ addition. To ensure the functions of sludge floes in a treatment plant, the gradient of ionic species around the surfaces of floc-like sludge was monitored by ion selective microelectrodes for ${NH_4}^+,\;{NO_3}^-$, and pH. The effective concentration of $Ca^{2+}$ ion to form floc-like sludge was determined to be 750 mg/L (0.15 mg $Ca^{2+}/mg$ MLSS). Under the effective $Ca^{2+}$ condition, the SVI value was the lowest and large distribution of nitrifying bacteria at the outer surface was observed in the aerobic floc-like sludge. From the results, it was found that the calcium ion functioned as an agent for the formation of aerobic floc-like sludge, resulting in the enhanced nitrification.


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