Lee, Hyeon-Ki;Kim, Hwan-Gi

  • Published : 2006.04.30


The hot spring water of the north Jeonla province such as Wanggung, Jookrim, Seokjung, and Hwasim, has fluoride concentration of 3.9 mg/L, 12.7 mg/L, 1.9 mg/L, and 6.3 mg/L, respectively. These figures fairly exceed the Korean and WHO standard for potable water, which is 1.5 mg/L. Therefore, in this study, research on elimination of fluoride in a hot spring water of Jookrim region, which has the highest level of fluoride concentration level in the north Jeonla province, was carried out. In analysis of Jookrim hot spring water according to the water quality standard for potable water, pH was very high at 9.25 and the concentration of fluoride was 10 times higher than the standard at 18.2 mg/L. Other measurements were within the standard or not detected. After injecting 10g of activated carbon for elimination of fluoride, the fluoride concentration was measured at 13.5 mg/L, and when 70mL or more of alum 10 g/L solution was injected, the concentration was measured at 2.8 mg/L, and injecting 3g of lime was measured at 9 mg/L. Alum showed the best elimination performance among all individual injections. Injection of 25 mL of activated carbon and 100 mL of alum solution together reduced the fluoride concentration down to 1.3 mg/L, which is under the potable standard. Injection of lime 1g and 75 mL of alum 10 g/L solution together reduced fluoride concentration to 4.1 mg/L. From the modifying HRT, by using ion exchange resin column, the pH was stabilized when HRT was Imin and showed range of $6.7{\sim}7.8$. The fluoride concentration reduced gradually as the HRT increased, and satisfied the potable standard when HRT passed 6 min, and after 30 min HRT, the concentration of fluoride was 0.05 mg/L: almost eliminated.


Hot spring water;Fluoride;Activated carbon;Alum;Lime;Ion exchange resin


  1. Health Environmental Research, A study on factors of abundant fluoride in underground water, Jeollabuk-Do Health Environment Research Institute, pp. 147, (1998)
  2. Fluorides and human health. Geneva, World Health Organization, Monograph Series, No. 59, (1970)
  3. Lee, Chang. Ki., Environment and Health, Haseo, (1993)
  4. Bulusu, k. r. et al. Fluorides in water, defluoridation methods and their limitations. journal of the Institution of Engineer(India), 60 (1979)
  5. Choi, Sung. Young., A study on the removal of taste, odor and fluoride in the hot spring, Chonbuk National University, (2005)
  6. National Research Council. Drinking water and health, Washington. DC, National Academy of Sciences, (1977)
  7. Eric, J. Reardon. and Yangxin, Wang., 'A limestone reactor for fluoride removal from wastewaters,' Environ. Sci. Technol. 2000, 34, 3247-3253, (2000)
  8. Ensar, Oguz., 'Adsorption of fluoride on gas concrete materials' Journal of Hazardous Materials, B117, 227-233, (2005)
  9. Luo, Fang., Kedar, Nath., Ghimire, Masayuki., Kuriyama, Katsutoshi, Inoue., and Kenjiro, Makino., 'Removal of Fluoride using some lanthanum(III)-Ioaded adsorbents with different functional groups and polymer matrices,' Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 78, 1038-1047, (2003)
  10. N, V. R., Mohan, Rao., and C, S. Bhaskaran., 'Studies on defluoridation of water,' Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 41, 17-24, (1988)
  11. Haron, M. J., Wan, Yunus., W, M. Z., Wasay, S. A., and Uchiumi, A., 'Sorption of fluoride ions from aqueous solutions by a yttrium-loaded poly (Hydroxamic acid) resin,' The International journal of environmental studies, 48(3/4), 245, (1995)
  12. Fluorides. Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, (1971)