Characterization of Mixed Apple and Carrot Retentates Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Lee, Jun-Ho (Department of Food Science and Engineering, Daegu University)
  • Published : 2006.06.01


Models capable of predicting the product quality of mixed apple and carrot retentates (MACR) have been developed using response surface methodology and used to characterize the effects of processing conditions including average transmembrane pressure (ATP), temperature, and blend ratio. Color, soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C, acidity, turbidity, and viscosity were used to assess the product quality following the ultrafiltration (UF) process. $L^*-value$ decreased with increased ATP, but the value was not affected by changes in temperature. Blend ratio also greatly influenced the $L^*-value$. Redness ($a^*-value$), on the other hand, was less affected by temperature and ATP. As the ATP and temperature increased, yellowness increased gradually. Soluble solids contents appeared to decrease gradually as the ATP increased for all blend samples, but the effect of temperature seemed to be less. Total sugar content was more affected by temperature than ATP. In general, samples containing 75% carrot had higher amounts of vitamin C regardless of processing conditions. Changes in acidity were also complex and appeared to respond to interactions among ATP, temperature, and blend ratio. Turbidity increased for all samples as both ATP and temperature increased. The higher the amount of carrot in the blend samples, the higher values for turbidity. Although the changes were small, viscosity appeared to increase as the ATP and temperature increased during UF.


  1. Cassano A, Drioli E, Galaverna G, Marchelli R, Di Silvestro G, Cagnasso P. 2003. Clafication and concentration of citrus and carrot juices by integrated membrane processes. J Food Eng 57: 153-163
  2. Ortega-Rivas E. 1995. Review and advances in apple juice processing. In Food Process Design and Evaluation. Singh RK, ed. Technomic. Lancaster, PA, USA. p 21-47
  3. Lee JH, Choi YH. 2001. Changes in color parameters of clarified apple and carrot blend juice using response surface methodology. Food Sci Biotechnol 10: 673-676
  4. McDaniel MR, Lederer CL, Flores JH, Heatherbell DA. 1990. Effect of sulphur dioxide and storage temperature on the sensory properties of clarified apple juice. J Food Sci 55: 728-730, 745
  5. Capannelli G, Bottino A, Munari S, Lister DG, Maschio G, Becchi I. 1994. The use of membrane processes in the clarification of orange and lemon juices. J Food Eng 21: 473-483
  6. Gokmen V, Borneman Z, Nijhuis HH. 1998. Improved ultrafiltraiton for color reduction and stabilization of apple juice. J Food Sci 63: 504-507
  7. Fukumoto LR, Delaquis P, Girard B. 1998. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration ceramic membranes for apple juice clarification. J Food Sci 63: 845-850
  8. Girard B, Fukumoto LR. 1999. Apple juice clarification using microfiltration and ultrafiltration polymeric membranes. Lebensm Wiss Technol 32: 290-298
  9. Youn KS, Hong JH, Bae DH, Kim SJ, Kim SD. 2004. Effective clarifying process of reconstituted apple juice using membrane filtration with filter-aid pretreatment. J Membrane Sci 228: 179-186
  10. Hutchings JB. 1999. Food colour and appearance. 2nd ed. An Aspen Publication, New York, NY, USA. p 19-21
  11. Floribeth V, Celsa L, Cooke RD. 1981. A study of the production of clarified banana juice using pectinolytic enzymes. Food Technol 16: 115-125
  12. Lee JH, Seog-Lee EJ. 1997. Physicochemical characteristics of mixed fruit and vegetable juices produced using ultrafiltration. Foods Biotechnol 6: 201-208
  13. Kim SM, Kang YJ. 2001. Changes in the constituents of citrus juice by ultrafiltration. Korean J Postharvest Sci Technol 8: 442-448
  14. Zarate-Rodriguez E, Ortega-Rivas E, Barbosa-Canovas GV. 2001. Effect of membrane pore size on quality of ultra-filtrated apple juice. Int J Food Sci Technol 36: 663-667
  15. Wu ML, Zall RR, Tzeng WC. 1990. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration comparison for apple juice clarification. J Food Sci 55: 1162-1163
  16. Cassano A, Jiao B, Drioli E. 2004. Production of concentrated kiwifruit juice by integrated membrane process. Food Res Int 37: 139-148
  17. Johnson JR, Braddock RJ, Chen CS. 1996. Flavor losses in orange juice during ultrafiltration and subsequent evaporation. J Food Sci 61: 540-543