Daidzein Modulations of Apolipoprotein B and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA Expression in Chick Liver Vary Depending on Dietary Protein Levels

  • Choi, Jinho (College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Song, Jungmin (College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Choi, Yeon-Mi (College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Jang, Dong-Ju (College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, Eunmi (Division of Traditional Food Research, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Inho (Division of Food Material Processing Technology, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Chee, Kew-Mahn (College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University)
  • Received : 2004.05.03
  • Accepted : 2005.09.20
  • Published : 2006.02.01


This study was designed to determine the effects of daidzein (DE) on hepatic lipid metabolism in chicks fed with low protein (LP) diet based on casein. In experiment 1, the male chicks were fed with one of the three levels of dietary protein containing 10.95%, 21.9% and 43.8% protein content for 2 days. In experiment 2, the chicks were fed one of the three levels of protein with or without DE at 1,000 mg/kg diet for 2 days. Experiment 3 was conducted to compare DE (LP+DE) with estradiol (LP+E2) in chicks fed with LP diet for 7 days. Plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid profiles, activities of hepatic malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were measured. Transcriptions of hepatic fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein-B (APO-B), and fructose bisphosphatase mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Increasing dietary protein levels markedly decreased the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, hepatic total lipids, hepatic TG, and the mRNA transcriptions while the increased dietary protein levels increased hepatic ICDH activities in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the effects of dietary protein levels on blood and hepatic lipid content were more prominent than those of the additional DE. Interestingly, plasma TG levels were affected by DE supplementation (p<0.05). In experiment 3, DE inhibited APO-B mRNA expressions and stimulated the accumulation of lipid in the liver through mechanisms different from E2. In this study, we demonstrate that DE has beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles, but that it inhibits APO-B mRNA transcription and aggravates the fatty liver induced by LP diet in chicks.


Supported by : Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry


  1. Adams, K. A. and A. J. Davis. 2001. Dietary protein concentration regulates the mRNA expression of chicken hepatic malic enzyme. J. Nutr. 131:2269-2274
  2. Ascencio, C., N. Torres, F. Isoard-Acosta, F. J. Gomez-Perez, R. Hermadez-Pando and A. R. Tovar. 2004. Soy protein affects serum insulin and hepatic SREBP-1 mRNA and reduces fatty liver in rats. J. Nutr. 134:522-529
  3. Bannwart, C., T. Fotsis, R. Heikkinen and H. Adlercreutz. 1984. Identification of the isoflavonic phytoestrogen daidzein in human urine. Clin. Chim. Acta. 136:165-172
  4. Borradaile, N. M., L. E. de Dreu, L. J. Wilcox, J. Y. Edwards and M. W. Huff. 2002. Soya phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, decrease apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells through multiple mechanisms. Biochem. J. 366:531-539
  5. Chomczynski, P. and N. Sacchi. 1987. Single step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem. 162:156-159
  6. De Jong, F. and G. Schhreiber. 1987. Messenger RNA levels of plasma proteins in rat liver during protein depletion and refeeding. J. Nutr. 117:1798-1800
  7. Folch, J., M. Lees and G. H. Sloane-Staney. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509
  8. Goodridge, A. G., A. Garay and P. Silpananta. 1974. Regulation of lipogenesis and the total activities of lipogenic enzymes in a primary culture of hepatocytes from prenatal and early postnatal chicks. J. Biol. Chem. 249:1469-1475
  9. Goodridge, A. G. 1968. Conversion of [U14-C] glucose into carbon dioxide, glycogen, cholesterol and fatty acids in liver slices from embryonic and growing chicks. Biochem. J. 108:655-661
  10. Han, Y. K., I. H. Kim, J. W. Hong, O. S. Kwon, S. H. Lee, J. H. Kim, B. J. Min and W. B. Lee. 2003. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrient in plant protein feedstuffs for finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1020-1024
  11. King, R. A., J. L. Broadbent and R. J. Head. 1996. Absorption and excretion of the soy isoflavone genistein in rats. J. Nutr. 126:176-182
  12. Kirk, E. A., P. Sutherland, S. A. Wang, A. Chait and R. C. LeBoeuf. 1998. Dietary isoflavones reduce plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 mice but not LDL receptordeficient mice. J. Nutr. 128:954-959
  13. Lu, J. J., C. W. Huang and R. G. R. Chou. 2003. The effects of DLmethionine and DL-methionine hydroxy analogue on growth performance, contents of serum amino acids and activities of digestive proteases in broilers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:714-718
  14. Ma, X., L. M. Salati, S. E. Ash, D. A. Mitchell, S. A. Klautky, D. A. Fantozzi and A. G. Goodridge. 1990. Nutritional regulation and tissue-specific expression of the malic enzyme gene in the chicken: Transcriptional control and chromatin structure. J. Biol. Chem. 265:18435-18441
  15. MacDonald, M. J. 2002. Differences between mouse and rat pancreatic islets: succinate responsiveness, malic enzyme, and anaplerosis. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 283:E302-E310
  16. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry, 9th rev. ed. National Academic Press, Washington DC. p. 81
  17. Neri, B. P. and C. S. Frings. 1973. Improved method for determination of triglyceride in serum. Clin. Chem. 19:1201-1202
  18. Ratna, W. N. 2002. Inhibition of estrogenic stimulation of gene expression by genistein. Life Sci. 71:865-877
  19. Ren, M. Q., G. Kuhn, J. Wegner, G. Nurnberg, J. Chen and K. Ender. 2001. Feeding daidzein to late pregnant sows influences the estrogen receptor beta and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor mRNA expression in newborn piglets. J. Endocrinol. 170:129-135
  20. Rosebrough, R. W., A. D. Mitchell and J. P. McMurtry. 1996. Dietary crude protein changes rapidly alter metabolism and plasma insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in broiler chickens. J. Nutr. 126:2888-2898
  21. Rosebrough, R. W., A. D. Mitchell, M. F. Von Vleck and N. C. Steele. 1990. Protein and energy relations in the broiler chicken. 8. Comparisons involving protein- and lysineadequate and inadequate diets on lipid metabolism. Br. J. Nutr. 64:515-523
  22. Rosebrough, R. W., S. M. Poch, B. A. Russell and M. P. Richards. 2002. Dietary protein regulates in vitro lipogenesis and lipogenic gene expression in broilers. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A 132:423-431
  23. Sato, M., K. Nagao, M. Sakono, H. Ogawa, K. Yamamoto and K. Imaizumi. 1996. Low protein diets posttranscriptionally repress apolipoprotein B expression in rat liver. J. Nutr. Biochem. 7:381-385
  24. Setchell, K. D. and A. Cassidy. 1999. Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health. J. Nutr. 129:758S-767S
  25. Sirtori, C. R., M. R. Lovati, C. Manzoni, M. Monetti, F. Pazzucconi and E. Gatti. 1995. Soy and cholesterol reduction: clinical experience. J. Nutr. 125:598S-605S
  26. Tanaka, K., S. Ohtani and K. Shigeno. 1983. Effect of increasing dietary energy on hepatic lipogenesis in growing chicks. I. Increasing energy by carbohydrates supplementation. Poult. Sci. 62:445-451
  27. Wang, H. and P. A. Muphy. 1994. Isoflavone content in commercial soybean foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1666-1673
  28. Winberry, L. K., S. M. Morris Jr, J. E. Fisch, M. J. Glynias, R. A. Jenik and A. G. Goodridge. 1983. Molecular cloning of cDNA sequences for avian malic enzyme. Nutritional and hormonal regulation of malic enzyme mRNA levels in avian liver cells in vivo and in culture. J. Biol. Chem. 258:1337-1342
  29. Wong, C. K. and W. M. Keung. 1999. Bovine adrenal 3$\beta$- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E.C. / 5-ene-4-ene isomerase (E.C. characterization and its inhibition by isoflavones. J. Steroid Biochem. Mole. Biol. 71:191-202
  30. Xiao, C. W., M. R. L'Abbe, G. S. Gilani, G. M. Cooke, I. H. Curran and S. A. Papademetriou. 2004. Dietary soy protein isolate and isoflavones modulate hepatic thyroid hormone receptors in rats. J. Nutr. 134:743-749
  31. Yun, J. H., J. S. Yong and B. J. Chae. 2005. Effects of feeding rice protein concentrate on growth performance and ileal digestibility in early-weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:384-389

Cited by

  1. Lipid Metabolism and Fatty Liver in Poultry vol.45, pp.2, 2018,