Improved Reproductive Efficiency in Gilts by Intrauterine Infusion of Killed Boar Semen before Breeding

  • Capitan, Severino S. (Animal and Dairy Sciences Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Banos College) ;
  • Penalba, F.F. (Animal and Dairy Sciences Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Banos College) ;
  • Geromo, F.B. (Department of Agricuture) ;
  • Dalumpienes, J.M. (TJEI Swine Farm)
  • Received : 2005.07.17
  • Accepted : 2005.11.04
  • Published : 2006.06.01


Two separate trials were conducted to determine the effects of uterine priming prior to first breeding and quantify any changes in the reproductive efficiency of gilts. In trial I twelve (12) gilts were randomly assigned to 3 treatments:T1:infusion of distilled water (control), T2: single infusion of killed semen (KS1), and T3: double infusion of killed semen (KS2). Each treatment had 4 breeding gilts which were bred by natural insemination (NI). In trial II, another set of 12 breeding gilts were randomly allotted to the same treatments and were subsequently bred by artificial insemination (AI). Infusions, through the use of AI catheters, were done during the $2^{nd}$ estrous cycle for T1 and T2, whereas infusions for T3 were made during the $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ cycles. Regular breeding was subsequently made during the $3^{rd}$ estrous cycle. All gilts that returned to cycle were rebred within the 30-day period. In trial I (natural breeding), total piglets born was higher (p<0.05) in T2 (12.75 piglets) and T3 (11.75 piglets) than in the control (10.5 piglets). T3 obtained the highest (p<0.05) litter size (10.25 piglets) and heaviest litter weight (74.12 kg) at 28 days weaning, followed by T2 (9.80 piglets and 65.0 kg, respectively). The control yielded the lowest (p<0.05) litter size (7.50) and the lightest litter weight (47.00 kg) at weaning. For Trial II gilts (artificially inseminated), T3 gave higher (p<0.05) litter size born alive (10.88 piglets), total piglets born (11.72 piglets) and live litter weight at birth (15.30 kg) than those of T2 and the control. These results indicate that prebreeding intrauterine infusion of killed boar semen, either single or double, improved the reproductive performance of gilts.


Gilt;Killed Semen;Litter Size;Reproductive Efficiency;Uterine Priming


  1. Alghamdi, A. S., D. N. Foster and M. H. T. Troedsson. 2004. Equine seminal plasma reduces sperm binding to polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and improves the fertility of fresh semen inseminated into inflamed uteri. Reprod. 127:539-600
  2. Bischof, R. J., C. S. Lee and M. R. Brandon. 1994b. The inflammatory response in the pig uterus induced by seminal plasma. J. Reprod. Immunol. 26:131-146
  3. Clarke, B. and D. R. S. Kirby. 1966. Maintenance of histocompatibility polymorphisms. Nat. 211:999-1000
  4. Engelhardt, H., B. A. Croy and G. J. King. 1997. Role of uerine immune cells in early pregnancy in pigs. J. Reprod. Immunol. 52(Suppl):115-131
  5. Rozeboom, K. 2000. Improving fertility with seminal plasma. Swine News. 23:15-17
  6. Hansen, P. J., M. P. Hogard and A. C. Rathwell. 1987. Effects of stallion seminal plasma on hydrogen peroxide release by leukocytes exposed to spermatozoa and bacteria. J. Reprod. Immunol. 26:131-146
  7. McIntyre, H. A. and W. P. Faulk. 1983. Recurrent spontaneous abortion in human pregnancy: results of immuno-genetical, cellular, and humoral studies. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 4:165
  8. Bischof, R. J., M. R. Brandon and C. S. Lee. 1994a. Studies on the distribution of immune cells in the uteri of prepubertal and cycling gilts. J. Reprod. Immunol. 26:111-129
  9. Rozeboom, K. J., M. H. T. Troedsson, T. W. Molitor and B. G. Crabo. 1999. The effect of spermatozoa and seminal plasma on leukocyte migration into the uterus of gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2201-2206
  10. Robertson, S. A., R. F. Seamark, L. J. Guilbert and R. F. Wegmann. 1994. The role of cytokines in gestation. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 14:239-292
  11. Rozeboom, K. J., G. Rocha-Chavez and M. H. T. Troedsson. 2001. Inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis by pig seminal plasma in vitro: a potential method for modulating post-breeding inflammation in sows. Reprod. 121:567-572
  12. Murray, F. A., A. P. Grifo, Jr. and C. F. Parker. 1983. Increased litter size in gilts by intrauterine infusion of seminal and sperm antigens before breeding. J. Anim. Sci. 56:895-900
  13. Simmen, F. A., R. C. M. Simmen, R. D. Geisert, F. Martinat-Botte, F. W. Bazer and M. Terqui. 1992. Differential expression, during the estrous cycle and pre- and post-implantation conceptus development, of messenger ribonucleic acids encoding components of the pig uterine-like growth factor system. Endocrinol. 130:1547-1556
  14. Gomez, K. A. and A. A. Gomez. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2n ed. John Wiley and Sons, Canada
  15. Lessard, M., M. Lepine, J. J. Matte, M. F. Palin and J. P. Laforest. 2003. Uterine immune reaction and reproductive performance of sows inseminated with extended semen and infused with pooled whole dead semen. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2818-2825
  16. Murray, F. A. and A. P. Grifo, Jr. 1986. Intrauterine infusion of killed semen to increase litter size in gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 62:187-190
  17. Beer, A. E., J. R. Scott and R. E. Billingham. 1975. Histocompatibility of maternal immunological status as determinants of fetoplacental weights and litter size in rodents. J. Exp. Med. 142:180-192
  18. Riley, J. 1999. Uterine Priming of Gilts to Increase Litter Size. Associates International, 'Warreners' MS 150, Pittsworth Qld 4356