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The Respective Effects of Shoot Height and Conservation Method on the Yield and Nutritive Value, and Essential Oils of Wormwood (Artemisia montana Pampan)

  • Kim, S.C. (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Adesogan, A.T. (Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida) ;
  • Ko, Y.D. (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University)
  • Received : 2005.11.29
  • Accepted : 2006.02.24
  • Published : 2006.06.01

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the shoot height at which the yield and nutritive value of wormwood (Artemisia montana) is optimized in order to provide information on its potential to support animal production (Experiment 1). A second objective was to determine how the essential oil (EO) concentration in wormwood hay and silage differ (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, Artemisia montana was harvested at five different shoot heights (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm) from triplicate $1.8{\times}1.8m$ plots. Dry matter (DM) yield was measured at each harvest date and the harvested wormwood was botanically separated into leaf, stalk and whole plant fractions and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD). Values for total digestible nutrients (TDN), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) were subsequently calculated using prediction equations. Dry matter yields of stalk and whole plant increased linearly (p<0.001) and leaf yield increased quadratically (p<0.01) with shoot height, whereas the leaf/stalk ratio decreased linearly (p<0.001). As shoot height increased, there was a linear increase (p<0.001) in leaf DM, ether extract (EE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents and a quadratic increase (p<0.05) in leaf acid detergent fiber (ADF) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents, and stalk and whole plant DM (p<0.001), organic matter (OM, p<0.01 and p<0.05), NDF (p<0.001 and 0.05) and NFE (p<0.05) contents. However, there were decreases in leaf crude protein content (CP, quadratic, p<0.001) and stalk and whole plant EE content (linear, p<0.001), CP (quadratic, p<0.05) and ash (quadratic, p<0.05) contents. Digestibility of DM and TDN, and DE and ME value in leaves were not affected by increasing shoot height, but these measures linearly decreased (p<0.001) in stalk and whole plant. In Experiment 2, the hay had higher DM and CP concentrations, but lower EE concentration than the silage. Essential oil (EO) content in wormwood silage (0.49 g/100 g DM) was higher (p<0.05) than that in wormwood hay (0.32 g/100 g DM). Wormwood hay contained 25 essentail oils (EO) including camphor (10.4 g/100 g), 1-borneol (11.6 g/100 g) and caryophyllene oxide (27.7 g/100 g), and wormwood silage had 26 EO constituents including 3-cyclohexen-1-ol (8.1 g/100 g), trans-caryophyllene (8.6 g/100 g) and ${\gamma}$-selinene (16.8 g/100 g). It is concluded that the most ideal shoot height for harvesting wormwood is 60 cm based on the optimization of DM yield and nutritive value. Wormwood silage had a greater quantity and array of EO than wormwood hay.

Keywords

Wormwood;Maturity;Yield;Pepsin-cellulase Digestibility;Essential Oil

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