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Effects of Urea Level and Sodium DL-malate in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency, Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows Raised under Tropical Condition

  • Khampa, S. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Wanapat, Metha (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Wachirapakorn, C. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Nontaso, N. (Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Wattiaux, M. (Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin)
  • Received : 2005.09.26
  • Accepted : 2005.12.30
  • Published : 2006.06.01

Abstract

Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a $2{\times}2$ Factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to study supplementation of urea level (U) at 2 and 4% and sodium dl-malate (M) at 10 and 20 g/hd/d in concentrate. The treatments were as follows U2M10, U2M20, U4M10 and U4M20, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2.5 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by urea level and sodium dl-malate. In addition, the viable bacteria were similar for amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Cellulolytic bacteria were significantly affected by level of sodium dl-malate especially Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly affected by level of urea supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 75% DM with urea at 4% in concentrate and sodium dl-malate at 20 g/hd/d with UTS as a roughage could improv rumen ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords

Urea;Sodium DL-malate;Rumen Fermentation;Cassava Chip;Urea-treated Rice Straw;Tropical Dairying

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Khon Kaen University

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