A Survey of Total Aflatoxins in Food Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detector (HPLC-FLD) and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)

HPLC-FLD 및 LC-MS/MS에 의한 식품 중 총아플라톡신 오염실태 조사

  • Published : 2007.10.31

Abstract

A survey for total aflatoxins (aflatoxins $B_1$, $B_2$, $G_1$, and $G_2$) was conducted on 245 cereals and processed cereal products, and 148 nuts and processed nut products in Korea, for a total of 393 commercialized ed samples. The total aflatoxins were quantified by the immunoaffinity column clean-up method with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - fluorescence detection (FLD), and were confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total aflatoxins(AFs) were detected in 37 samples (9.4% incidence), including 2 millet samples, 1 mixed cereal (sunsik), 1 powdered malt sample, 2 processed cereal products, 6 peanut samples, 22 peanut butter samples, and 1 sample each of almonds, adlay tea, and a processed nut product. The contamination levels were $0.04-2.65{\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxin $B_1$, and $0.04-5.51{\mu}g/kg$ for total aflatoxins. Finally, LC-MS/MS analysis of the contaminated samples was conducted to confirm the detected aflatoxins, and all 37 samples showing aflatoxins by HPLC-FLD were confirmed by LC-MS/MS.

Keywords

aflatoxins;incidence;immunoaffinity column;HPLC-FLD;LC-MS/MS

References

  1. Rustom IYS. Aflatoxin in food and feed: Occurrence, legislation, and inactivation by physical methods. Food Chem. 59: 57-67 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00096-9
  2. Yeo HJ, Kim JG. Effects of cooking and processing on the reduction of aflatoxin content in corn. J. Food Hyg. Saf. 18: 87-93 (2003)
  3. Creppy EE. Update of survey, regulation, and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol. Lett. 127: 19-28 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00479-9
  4. Hwang JH, Chun HS, Lee KG. Aflatoxins in food-Analytical methods and reduction of toxicity by physicochemical processes. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Bio. Chem. 47: 1-16 (2004)
  5. Park JW, Kim EK, Shon DH, Kim YB. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin $B_1$, and ochratoxin A in barley and corn foods from Korea. Food Addit. Contam. 19: 1073-1080 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030210151840
  6. Chun HS, Kim HJ, Ok HE, Hwang JB, Chung DH. Determination of aflatoxin levels in nuts and their products consumed in South Korea. Food Chem. 102: 385-391 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.031
  7. Park JW. Analysis of peanut and peanut butter retailed in Korea for aflatoxin $B_1$. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 309-312 (2006)
  8. Lee JO, Oh KS, Sho YS, Park SS, Suh JH, Choi WJ, Lee BH, Woo GJ. A survey of total aflatoxin in foods. Annu. Rep. KFDA 9. p. 148. Korea Food & Drug Administration, Seoul, Korea (2005)
  9. Iamanaka BT, de Menezes HC, Vicente E, Leite RSF, Taniwaki MH. Aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxins occurrence in sultanas and dried figs commercialized in Brazil. Food Control 18: 454- 457 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.12.002
  10. Lee SE, Campbell BC, Molyneux RJ, Hasegawa S, Lee HS. Inhibitory effects of naturally occurring compounds on aflatoxin B1 biotransformation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 49: 5171-5177 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010454v
  11. Akiyama H, Goda Y, Tanaka T, Toyoda M. Determination of aflatoxin $B_1,\;B_2,\;G_1,\;G_2$ in spices using a multifunctional column clean-up. J. Chromatogr. A 932: 153-157 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01211-0
  12. Abdulkadar AHW, Al-Ali AA, Al-Kildi AM, Al-Jedah JH. Mycotoxins in food products available in Qatar. Food Control 15: 543-548 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2003.08.008
  13. Bae SI, Kwak BY, Park YK, Kim YH, Shon DH. Survey of aflatoxin $B_1$ in domestic doenjang and kochujang determined by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay. J. Food Hyg. Saf. 18: 95- 100 (2003)
  14. Buser MD, Abbas HK. Effects of extrusion temperature and dwell time on aflatoxin levels in cottonseed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50: 2556-2559 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011479x
  15. Kim MH. Comparison of methods for determination of aflatoxins in food products. J. Food Hyg. Saf. 11: 149-157 (1996)
  16. Escobar A, Regueiro OS. Determination of aflatoxin $B_1$ in food and feedstuffs in Cuba (1990 through 1996) using an immunoenzymatic reagent kit (Aflacen). J. Food Protect. 65: 219-221 (2002) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-65.1.219
  17. Blesa J, Soriano JM, Molto JC, Manes J. Limited survey for the presence of aflatoxins in foods from local markets and supermarkets in Valencia, Spain. Food Addit. Contam. 21: 165-171 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1080/0265203031000
  18. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Agents reviewed by the IARC monographs. Volumes 1- 97 Available from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ crthallalph.php Accessed Aug. 13, (2007)
  19. Thuvander A, Möller T, Barbieri HE, Jansson A, Salomonsson AC, Olsen M. Dietary intake of some important mycotoxins by the Swedish population. Food Addit. Contam. 18: 696-706 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030121353
  20. Oh KS, Suh JH, Sho YS, Park SS, Choi WJ, JO Lee, Kim HY, Woo GJ. Exposure assessment of total aflatoxin in foods. Korean J. Food Sci. 39: 25-28 (2007)
  21. Sugita-Konishi Y, Nakajima M, Tabata S, Ishikuro E, Tanaka T, Norizuki H, Itoh Y, Aoyama K, Fujita K, Kai S, Kumagai S. Occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan. J. Food Protect. 69: 1365-1370 (2006) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-69.6.1365
  22. Oh KS, Suh JH, Park SS, Sho YS, Choi WJ, An YS, Lee JO, Woo GJ. Advanced in the analysis of total aflatoxin in foods. J. Food Hyg. Saf. 21: 76-81 (2006)
  23. Park JW, Kim EK, Kim YB. Estimation of the daily exposure of Koreans to aflatoxin $B_1$ through food consumption. Food Addit. Contam. 21: 70-75 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030310001622782
  24. Semple RL, Frio AS, Hicks PA and Lozare JV. Mycotoxin prevention and control in foodgrains. A collaborative publication of the UNDP/FAO Regional Network Inter-Country Cooperation on Preharvest Technology and Quality Control of Foodgrains (REGNET) and the ASEAN Grain Postharvest Programme. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5036e/x5036E00.htm Accessed Aug. 16, (2007)
  25. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. FAO Food and nutition paper 81. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 2004. Available from: http:// www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5499e/y5499e00.htm Accessed Aug. 16, (2007)
  26. Giray B, Girgin G, Engin AB, Aydin S, Sahin G. Aflatoxin levels in wheat samples consumed in some regions of Turkey. Food Control 18: 23-29 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.08.002
  27. Chan D, MacDonald SJ, Boughtflower V, Brereton P. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in food using a fully automated immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection. J. Chromatogr. A 1059: 13-16 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.09.096
  28. Das C, Mishrain HN. In vitro degradation of aflatoxin $B_1$ by horse radish peroxidase. Food Chem. 68: 309-313 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00196-X
  29. Abdulkadar AHW, Al-Ali A, Al-Jedah J. Aflatoxin contamination in edible nuts imported in Qatar. Food Control 11: 157-160 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(99)00088-2
  30. Mphande FA, Siame BA, Taylor JE. Fungi, aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana. J. Food Protect. 67: 96-102 (2004) https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-67.1.96