Quality and Functional Properties of Red Ginseng Prepared with Different Steaming Time and Drying Methods

원료삼의 증삼 및 건조 조건별 홍삼의 품질 및 기능성

  • Kim, Kyo-Youn (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Shin, Jin-Ki (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Su-Won (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Yoon, Sung-Ran (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Chung, Hun-Sik (Food and Bio-industry Institute, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Jeong, Yong-Jin (Department of Food Science & Technology, Keimyung University) ;
  • Choi, Myung-Sook (Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Chi-Moo (Punggi Ginseng Nonghyup) ;
  • Moon, Kwang-Deog (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kwon, Joong-Ho (Department of Food Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University)
  • Published : 2007.10.31


The quality and functional properties of red ginseng in relation to steaming and drying conditions were evaluated. Fresh ginseng (5-year roots), cultivated in the Punggi region, were steamed for 2.5, 3.5, or 4.5 hr, and then dried by hot-air (60-$65^{\circ}C$/24 hr and $40^{\circ}C$,/3-4d) freezing ($-80^{\circ}C$/56 hr), and infrared (900 W/$62^{\circ}C$/68 hr). Hunter#s yellowness (b-value) and browning indexes (420 nm) of the samples were higher in the rootlets than in the main roots. Furthermore, these same index values were found to be high in the order of 3.5, 4.5, and 2.5 hr and infrared, hot-air, and freezing for steaming and subsequent drying, respectively. Analysis of soluble solids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, acidic polysaccharides, and electron donating abilities of the steamed and dried samples showed that 3.5hr of steaming with infrared drying was optimal. However, crude saponin contents were not influenced by steaming and drying conditions. The contents of $ginsenoside-Rg_l$, -Re, -Rf and $-Rb_2$, which were the major components in the samples, were reduced with steaming time, while the amounts of $-Rg_3$ and $-Rh_2$ increased, reaching the highest levels at 3.5 and 4.5 hr in the main roots and rootlets, respectively. The contents of $-Rg_3$ and $-Rh_2$ were similar in both the freeze-dried and hot-air dried samples.

경북 풍기산 원료삼의 증자 및 건조 조건별 홍삼의 품질 및 기능성을 알아보기 위해 5년 근을 대상으로 증자 조건(2.5, 3.5, 4.5시간)과 건조 조건(열풍건조: $60-65^{\circ}C/24$시간, $40^{\circ}C/3-4$일, 동결 건조: $-80^{\circ}C/56$시간, 원적외선건조: $900W/62^{\circ}C/68$시간) 별로 이화학적 특성과 ginsenoside함량을 비교 분석하였다. 시료의 황색 도와 갈변도는 지근이 본근에 비해 높은 수치를 보였으며, 증자시간 3.5, 4.5, 2.5시간의 순으로 그리고, 원적외선건조, 열풍건조, 동결건조의 순으로 높은 수치를 보였다. 증자 및 건조시료의 가용성 고형분, 총 페놀, 총 플라보노이드, 산성다당체, 전자공여능 등의 특성은 3.5시간 증자와 원적외선 건조가 가장 양호한 결과를 보였다. 조사포닌 함량은 증자시간 및 건조방법에 영향을 받지 않았다. 함량이 높은 $ginsenoside-Rg_1$, -Re, -Rf $-Rb_2$, 등은 증자시간이 길어질수록 감소하였으나 $-Rg_3$$-Rh_2$의 함량은 유의적으로 증가하여 본근은 3.5시간, 지근은 4.5시간 증자시료에서 가장 높은 함량을 보였다(P<0.01). 증자 시료의 건조방법을 ginsenoside 관점에서 고려한다면 동결건조방법(2,824mg%)이 열풍건조(2,669 mg%)나 원적외선건조(2,667 mg%)에 비해 가장 타당한 것으로 판단되며, $ginsenoside-Rg_3$$Rh_2$의 함량은 동결건조와 열풍건조 간에 유의적인 차이가 없었다.


  1. KG & TRI. New Korean Ginseng. Korea Ginseng & Tabacco Research Institute. Daejeon, Korea. pp. 13-260 (1996)
  2. Park CK, Kwak YS, Hwang MS, Kim SC, Do JH. Trends and prospect of ginseng products in market health functional food. Food Sci. Ind. 40: 30-45 (2007)
  3. Yoon SR, Lee MH, Park JH, Lee IS, Kwon JH, Lee GD. Changes in physicochemical compounds with heating treatment of ginseng. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34: 1572-1578 (2005) https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2005.34.10.1572
  4. Kwon JH, Belanger JMR, Pare JRJ. Optimization of microwaveassisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology. J. Agr. Food Chem. 51: 1807-1810 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026068a
  5. Amerine MA, Ough CS. Method for analysis of musts and wine. Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. pp. 176-180 (1980)
  6. Lee JM, Son ES, Oh SS, Han DS. Contents of total flavonoid and biological activities of edible plants. Korean J. Diet. Culture 16: 504-515 (2001)
  7. Do JH, Lee HO, Lee SK, Jang JK. Colorimetic determination of acidic polysaccharide of red ginseng on lipolitic action of toxohormone- L form panax ginseng, its extraction condition and stability. Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 17: 139-144 (1993)
  8. Blios MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1203 (1958) https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
  9. Kato H, Lee IE, Chuyen NV, Kim SB, Hayase F. Inhibition of nitrosamine formation by nondialyzable melanoidens. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 51: 1333-1338 (1987) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.51.1333
  10. Lee CR, Whang WK, Shin CG, Lee HS, Han ST, Im BO, Ko SK. Comparison of composition and contents in fresh ginseng roots cultivated in Korea, Japan, and China at various ages. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 36: 847-850 (2004)
  11. SAS Institute, Inc. SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC, USA (2003)
  12. Park MH, Kim KC, Kim JS. Changes in the physicochemical properties of ginseng by roasting. Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 17: 228-231 (1993)
  13. Noh JE, Choi YK, Kim HK, Kwon JH. Pre-establishment of microwave-assisted extraction condition for antioxidative extracts from cabbage. Korean J. Food Preserv. 12: 62-67 (2005)
  14. Ryu GH. Present status of red ginseng products and its manufacturing process. Food Ind. Nutr. 8: 38-42 (2003)