Biological Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Euonymus alatus Leaf

화살나무 잎 열수추출물의 생리활성

  • Published : 2007.10.31


This study was performed to investigate the biological activities of roasted (RE) and non-roasted (NRE) hot water extract samples from Euonymus alatus leaf by measuring DPPH radical scavenging, total polyphenol content, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and inhibitory effects on ${\alpha}-amylase$ and ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ in vitro. The $IC_{50}$ values fur DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the NRE and RE hot water extracts were $19.1{\mu}g/mL$ and $21.9{\mu}g/mL$, respectively, and their total polyphenol contents were estimated as 9.6 mg/g for NRE and 10.6 mg/g for RE. Both NRE and RE scavenged the hydroxyl radical in a concentration-dependent manner, but their activities were lower than that of BHA. It was also shown that SOD-like activity was dependent on NRE and RE concentration, and the SOD-like activity of NRE was slightly higher than that of RE. The highest SOD-like activity obtained from NRE was 20% at a concentration of 3 mg/mL. Neither NRE nor RE seemed to have an effect on ${\alpha}-amylase$ and ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibition. Finally, the hot water extracts of NRE and RE significantly decreased the concentration of LPS-induced NO in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating anti-inflammatory activity.


  1. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herb. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. 93-94 (1993)
  2. Kim JM, Yang HH, Choi MS. 1994. Effect of Euonymus alatus on the tumorigenesis and immune response. Korean J. Vet. Public Health 18: 79-85 (1994)
  3. Kwak EJ, Jo IJ, Sung KS, Ha TY. Effect of hot water extracts of roasted Rhus verniciflua stokes on antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34: 784-789 (2005)
  4. Whang HJ, Han WS, Yoon KR. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in apple. Anal. Sci. Technol. 14: 377-383 (2001)
  5. Han YB. Hankuk Yasaeng Sikyong Sikmul Jawon II (Wild Edible Plant Resources in Korea II). Korea University Press, Seoul, Korea. pp. 347-351 (2003)
  6. Gutteridge JM. Reactivity of hydroxyl and hydroxyl like radicals discriminated by release of thiobarbituric acid reactive material from deoxy sugars, nucleosides, and benzoate. Biochem. J. 224: 761-767 (1984)
  7. Murakami A, Gao G, Kim OK, Omura M, Yano M, Ito I, Furukawa H, Jiwajinda S, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H. Identification of courmarins from the fruit of Citrus hystrix DC as inhibitor of nitric oxide generation in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 333-339 (1999)
  8. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants antioxidants and the degenerative disease of aging. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 7915-7922 (1993)
  9. Lee JR, Jung JD, Lee JI, Song YM, Jin SK, Kim IS, Kim HY, Lee JH. The effects of emulsion type sausages containing mulberry leaf and persimmon leaf powder on lipid oxidation, nitrite, VBN, and fatty acid composition. Korean J. Food Sci. Ani. Resour. 23: 1-8 (2003)
  10. Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagent. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 16: 144-158 (1965)
  11. Park JH, Kim YO, Jung JM, Seo JB. Effect on quality of panfried green tea at different pan-frying conditions. J. Bio. Environ.Control 15: 90-95 (2006)
  12. Kim HJ, Jun BS, Kim SK, Cha JY, Cho YS. Polyphenolic compound content and antioxidative activities by extracts from seed, sprout and flower of safflower. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 1127-1132 (2000)
  13. Carrascosa JM, Moleto JC, Fermin Y, Martinez C, Andes A, Satrustegui J. Effect of chronic treatment with acabose on glucose and lipid metabolism in obese diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 3: 240-248 (2001)
  14. Kand YH, Park YK, Lee GD. The nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of phenolic compounds. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33: 626-632 (1996)
  15. Choi CH, Song ES, Kim JS, Kang MH. Antioxidative activites of Castanea crenata Flos. methanol extracts. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 1216-1220 (2003)
  16. Ding AH, Nathan CF, Stuhr DJ. Release of reactive nitrogen intermediates and reactive oxygen intermediates from mouse peritoneal macrophages. J. Immunol. 141: 2407-2412 (1988)
  17. Kim JG, Kang YM, Eum GS, Ko YM, Kim TY. Antioxidative activity and anti-microbial activity of extracts from medicinal plants (Akebia quinate Decaisn, Scirus fluviatilis A. Gray, Gardenia jasminoides for. Grandiflora Makino). J. Agr. Life Sci. 37: 69-75 (2003)
  18. Chung HS, Jeong HJ, Kim JS, Jeong SI, Kim KS, Kim KS, Kang BK, Ahn JW, Back SH, Kim HH. Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Euonymus alatus in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Clin. Chim. Acta 318: 113-120 (2002)
  19. Imalay IA, Limm S. DNA damage and oxygen radical toxicity. Science 240: 1302-1309 (1989)
  20. Lee JH, Shin SJ, Moon Y, Lee DK. Reduction of doxorubicin induced tissue damage by Euonymus alatus extract. Korean J. Immunol. 18: 253-263 (1996)
  21. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem. 47: 468-474 (1974)
  22. Liang YC, Huang YT, Tsai SH, Lin-shiau SY, Chen CF, Lin JK. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase by apigenin and related flavonoids in mouse macrophase. Carcinogenesis 20: 1945-1952 (1999)
  23. Ko YS, Lee IS. Quantitative analysis of free amino: Acids and free sugars in steamed and roasted green tea by HPLC. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 14: 301-304 (1985)
  24. Thomas MJ. The role of free radicals and antioxidants: How do you know that they are working? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 35: 21-39 (1995)
  25. Jeon JR. Park GS. Korean green tea by Ku Jeong Ku Po's 1. Analysis of general compositions and chemical composition. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 15: 95-101 (1999)
  26. Mccord JM. Oxygen derived radicals: A link between repercussion injury and inflammation. Fed. Proc. 46: 2402-2406 (1987)
  27. Halliwell B, Murcia MA, Chirico S, Aruoma OI. Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo: What they do and how they work. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 35: 7-20 (1995)
  28. Kuramoto T. Development and application of food materials from extract such as SOD. Up-to-date Food Process. 27: 22-23 (1992)
  29. Scheen AJ. Clinical efficacy of acabose in diabetes mellitus, a critical review of controlled trials. Diabetes Metab. 24: 311-320 (1998)
  30. Fridorich I. The biological activity of oxygen radicals. Science 201: 875-881 (1978)
  31. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxic assay. J. Immunol. Methods 65: 55-63 (1993)
  32. Choi SH, Lee BH, Choi HD. Analysis of catechin contents in commercial green tea by HPLC. J. Korean Food Sci. Nutr. 21: 386-389 (1992)