Cadmium and Zinc Uptake Characteristics of Corn Plant in Arable Soil Contaminated by Smelting Factory Source

Hong, Chang-Oh;Gutierrez, Jessie;Oh, Ju-Hwan;Lee, Yong-Bok;Yu, Chan;Kim, Pil-Joo

  • 발행 : 2007.09.30


The cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination of soils and cultivated crop plants by zinc smelting activities was studied. In the study area of the vicinity of ${\triangle}{\triangle}$ zinc smelting factory in Korea, soils and corn plants were sampled at corn harvesting stage and analyzed Cd and Zn concentration as well as Cd and Zn fraction and chemical properties in soils. At 600 m radius of studied area, Cd and Zn were highly accumulated in the surface soils (0 - 20 cm) showed greater than the Korean warning criteria (Cd 1.5, Zn 300 mg $kg^{-1}$) with corresponding values 1.7 and 407 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively. The leaf part gave higher Cd concentration with the corresponding value of 9.5 mg $kg^{-1}$ as compared to the stem and grains pare (1.6 and 0.18 mg $kg^{-1}$), respectively. Higher Zn concentration was also obtained from the leaf part of the corn plant which gave the value of 1,733 mg $kg^{-1}$. The stem and grain part gave corresponding values of 547 and 61 mg $kg^{-1}$. The order of the mean Cd concentration in fractions is F3 (oxidizable fraction) > F2 (reducible fraction) > F4 (residual fraction) > F1 (exchangeable + acidic fraction). A highly positive correlation is observed between F2 and concentration of Cd and Zn in both plant pare, leaf and grain. Highly positive correlations are shown in the pH exchangeable Ca and Mg, and CEC when correlated with Cd and Zn bound to F4 fractions. To reduce Cd and Zn uptake by corn plant in an arable land heavily contaminated with Cd and Zn as affected by smelting factory, an efficient and effective soil management to increase soil pH and CEC is thus recommended.


Zinc smelting factory;cadmium;zinc;fraction


  1. Islam E., Yang X., He Z., and Mahmood Q. (2007) Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 8, 1-13
  2. Pierzynski, G. M. and Schwab, A. P. (1993) Bioavailability of zinc, cadmium and lead in a metal contaminated alluvial soil. J. Environ. Qual. 22, 247-254
  3. Dudka, S., Piotrowska, M., and Chlopecka, A. (1994) Effect of evelvated concentratios of Cd and Zn in soil on spring wheat yield and the metal contents of the plants. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 76, 33-341
  4. Dahmain-Muller H, Oort F. V., Gelie B., and Bababane M., 2000.Strategies of heavy metal uptake by the three species growing in a new metal smelter. Environ. Pollut. 109:231-238
  5. Adriano, D. C. (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 106-149
  6. McBride, M. B. (1994) Environmental chemistry of soils. Oxford university press
  7. Xian, X. (1988) Effect of chemical forms of cadmium, zinc and lead in polluted soils on their uptake by cabbage plants. Plant and Soil 113, 257-264
  8. Coughtrey, P. J. and Martin, M. H. (1979) Cadmium, lead and zinc interactions and tolerance in two populations of Holcus lanatus L. grown in solution culture. Environ Exp Botany 19, 285-290
  9. Smilde, K. W., Luit, B. V., and Oriel, W. V. (1992) 'The extraction by soil and absorption by plants of applied zinc and cadmium. Plant Soil 143, 233-238
  10. Moraghan, J. T. (1993) Accumulation of cadmium and selected elements in flax seed grown on a calcareous soil. Plant Soil 150, 61-68
  11. Mckenna, I. M, Chaney, R L., and Williams, F. M (1993) 'The effects of cadmium and zinc interactions on the accumulation and tissue distribution of zinc and cadmium in lettuce and spinach. Environ Pollut 79, 113-120
  12. Zhou, Q., Wu, Y., and Xiong, X. (1994) Compound pollution of Cd and Zn and its ecological effect on rice plant. Chin J Appl Ecol 5, 428-441
  13. ME (Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea) (2005) 'The Korean Soil Environmental Conservation Act, ME. Gwacheon (in Korean)
  14. Allison, L. E. (1965) Organic carbon. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II, Ed. C. A. Black, p. 1367-1378, Am. Soc. Agron. Inc. Publ., Madison, WI
  15. RDA (Rural Development Administration, Korea) (1988) Methods of Soil Chemical Analysis. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA. Suwon (in Korean)
  16. Schofield, R K. (1949) Effect of pH on electric charges carried by clay particles. J. Soil Sci. 1, 1-8
  17. Ure, AM., Quevauviller, P. H, Muntau, H, and Griepink, B. (1993) Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. J Environ Anal Chem 51, 135-151
  18. Granato, T. C., Pietz, R. I., Knafl, G. J., Carlson, C. R., Tata, J. P., and Lue-Hing, C. (2004) Trace element concentrations in soil, com leaves, and grain after cessation of biosolids applications. J. Environ. Qual. 33, 2078-2089
  19. Bowen, H. J. M. (1979) Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, New York
  20. Aitken, M. N. (1997) Short term leaf surface adhesion of heavy metals following application of sewage sludge to grassland. Grass and Forage Science 52, 73-85
  21. Bolan, N. S., Naidu, R., Khan, M. A. R., Tillman, R. W., and Syers, J. K. (1999) The effects of anion sorption on sorption and leaching of cadmium. Aust J Soil Res 37, 445-460
  22. Chlopecka, A. and Adriano, D. C. (1996) Mimicked in-situ stabilization of metals in cropped soil : bioavailability and chemical form of zinc. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 3294-3303
  23. Hong, C. O., Lee, D. K., Chung, D. Y., and Kim, P. J. (2007) Liming effects on cadmium stabilization in upland soil affected by gold mining activity. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 52, 496-502
  24. Tessier, A, Campbell, P. G. C., and Bisson, M. (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry. 51, 844-851

피인용 문헌

  1. Current research trends for heavy metals of agricultural soils and crop uptake in Korea vol.31, pp.1, 2012,