Changes in the Contents of Carotenoids and Cis/Trans β-Carotenes of Fresh and Cooked Spinach in Foodservice Operations

단체급식에서 시금치의 조리방법에 따른 Carotenoids 및 Cis/Trans β-Carotene 함량의 변화

  • Lim, Yaung-Iee (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Sung-shin Women's University)
  • 임양이 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2007.01.31


HPLC quantifications of fresh and cooked (steamed/microwaved) spinach, one of the most frequently consumed vegetables in foodservice operations, were carried out to determine carotenoids compositions. An S-3 $\mu$m C30 stationary phase for reversed-phase columns with diode-array detection was used to separate and quantify geometric isomers of provitamin A carotenoids in the fresh and cooked spinach. The carotenoids in fresh spinach were identified and quantified: Lutein (63.0%), $\beta$-carotene isomers (all-trans 29.6%, 9-cis 3.2%, 13-cis 1.8%, $\alpha$-carotene 0.4%, zeaxanthin 2.1%) and cryptoxanthin. Cryptoxanthin, detected in a trace amount in HPLC, was not quantified in this study. Lutein was little affected by cooking methods and frozen conditions. 9-cis and 13-cis-$\beta$-carotene isomers were major types formed during cooking. Cooking (steam/microwave) did not alter carotenoid profiles of the samples, but the amounts of carotenoids quantified were greater than those in the fresh samples. Heat treatment such as steaming increased total carotenoids contents, especially trans-$\beta$-carotene (p<0.05). The carotenoid contents of the frozen spinach increased even after the microwaved treatment (p<0.05). These increases were likely to result from the increased extraction efficiency and inactivation of enzymes capable of carotenoids degrading during the heat treatments.


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