Study on the Quality Improvement of Acidic Citrus Juices, Citrus natsudaidai and Citrus grandis, by Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis

전기투석용 bipolar 막을 이용한 하밀감 및 당유자 주스의 품질개선에 관한 연구

  • Yang, Min-Ho (Department of Food Bioengineering, Cheju National University) ;
  • Kang, Yeung-Joo (Department of Food Bioengineering, Cheju National University)
  • 양민호 (제주대학교 식품생명공학과) ;
  • 강영주 (제주대학교 식품생명공학과)
  • Published : 2007.12.01


Acidic citrus juices obtained from C. natsudaidai and C. grandis were electrodialyzed with bipolar and organic acid selective membrane (ion exchange membrane) cartridges. The pH levels of the acidic citrus juices gradually increased to 14.5% (C. grandis) and 25.2% (C. natsudaidai) by electrodialysis with the bipolar membranes, while levels remained consistent when organic acid selective membranes were applied. The total acidity levels decreased more with the organic selective membrane than with the bipolar membrane. Conductivity rose with the bipolar membranes while the value continued to fall rapidly with the organic selective membranes. Sugar and flavonoid contents remained relatively unchanged, without any significant differences before and after electrodialysis with each membrane. Also, ion contents were almost unchanged with the bipolar membranes and the electrolyte, $K_2SO_4$, as compared to rapid changes in sodium and potassium levels with the organic selective membranes and the electrolyte, $K_2SO_4$. In summary, the use of bipolar membranes provided juice with better sensory quality than that of the organic acid selective membranes.


  1. Lee CH, Kang YJ. HPLC analysis of some flavonoids in citrus fruits. Korean J. Postharv. Sci. Technol. 4: 181-187 (1997)
  2. Satoru K, Yasuhiko T, Eriko K, Kazunori O, Masamichi Y. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruit. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 3565-3571 (1999)
  3. Song EY, Choi YH, Kang KH, Koh JS. Free sugar, organic acid, hesperidin, naringin, and inorganic elements changes of Cheju citrus fruits according to harvest date. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 306-312 (1998)
  4. Ko WJ, Yang MH, Kang YJ. Studies on deacidification of premature citrus juices by electrodialysis. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 202-208 (2006)
  5. Bazinet L, Lamarche F, Ippersiel D. Bipolar-membrane electrodialysis: Applications of electrodialysis in the food industry. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 9: 107-113 (1998)
  6. Quoc AL, Lamarche F, Makhlouf J. Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 2160-2166 (2000)
  7. Kim KT, Kim SS, Hong HD, Ha SD, Lee YC. Quality changes and pasteurization effects of citrus fruit juice by high voltage pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 635-641 (2003)
  8. Kang MH, Chai HN, Yang WK. Relationship on ionic conductivity and ionic permeability through polymer membrane. Appl. Chem. 6: 328-331 (2002)
  9. Ting SV, Rouseff RL. Citrus Fruits and Their Products: Analysis, Technology. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY, USA. p. 137 (1986)
  10. Kang YJ, Rhee KC. Deacidification of mandarin orange juice by electrodialysis combined with ultrafiltration. Nutr. Food 7: 411-416 (2002)
  11. Tronc J, Lamarche F, Makhlouf J. Effect of pH variation by electrodialysis on the inhibition of enzymatic browning in cloudy apple juice. J. Agr. Food Chem. 46: 829-833 (1998)
  12. Kim YC, Koh KS, Koh JS. Changes of flavonoids in the peel of Jeju native citrus fruits during maturation. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 10: 483-487 (2001)
  13. Vera E, Ruales J, Dornier M, Sandeaux J, Persin F, Pourcelly G, Vaillant F, Reynes M. Comparison of different methods for deacidification of clarified passion fruit juice. J. Food Eng. 59: 361-367 (2003)
  14. Tronc J, Lamarche F, Makhlouf J. Enzymatic browning inhibition in cloudy apple juice by electrodialysis. J. Food Sci. 62: 75-79 (1997)
  15. Kim JW, Jeon YJ, Lee JH, Lee SC. Effect of far-infrared irradiation and heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus pomaces. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 49: 60-64 (2006)
  16. Rhyu MR, Kim EY, Bae IY, Park YK. Contents of neohesperidin, naringin and hesperidin in premature Korean citrus fruits. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 132-135 (2002)
  17. Vera E, Ruales J, Dornier M, Sandeaux J, Sandeaux R, Pourcelly G. Deacidification of clarified passion fruit juice using different configurations of electrodialysis. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 78: 918-925 (2003)
  18. Song EY. Quality characteristics of citrus fruits according to harvest date and variety. MS thesis, Cheju National University, Cheju, Korea (1997)