Development of Lactose-hydrolyzed Milk with Low Sweetness Using Nanofiltration

Choi, S.H.;Lee, S.-B.;Won, H.-R.

  • Received : 2006.05.01
  • Accepted : 2006.08.22
  • Published : 2007.06.01


A lactose-hydrolyzed milk with low sweetness was developed using nanofiltration. Raw milk was treated with 0.03% ${\beta}$-galactosidase at $4^{\circ}C$ for 24 h to hydrolyze lactose partially. The resultant lactose-hydrolyzed milk containing 0.43% lactose was then concentrated using a nanofiltration membrane to reach concentration factor of 2.13. The concentration factors and coefficients of retention of milk components in nanofiltration were determined. The concentration factor of milk fat was 2.20 which was the highest of the milk components. The coefficient of retention of calcium and riboflavin was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively. However, the coefficient of retention of glucose, galactose, and sodium was 0.21, 0.15, and 0.22, respectively. Raw milk was treated with 0.1% ${\beta}$-galactosidase at $4^{\circ}C$ for 40 h to hydrolyze lactose fully and then concentrated to reach a concentration factor of 1.6 by using nanofiltration. The concentrated milk was reconstituted with water. The lactose-hydrolyzed milk had sweetness similar to milk. The compositional ratios of crude protein, calcium, sodium, and riboflavin of lactose-hydrolyzed nanofiltrated milk to those of raw milk were 99%, 97%, 77%, and 80%, respectively. This study showed that nanofiltration of lactose-hydrolyzed milk to remove galactose and glucose did not cause significant loss of calcium. The lactose-hydrolyzed nanofiltrated milk contained 0.06% lactose and had sweetness similar to milk.




  1. Kim, K.-O., S.-S. Kim, N.-K. Sung and Y.-C. Lee. 1993. Practice and application of organoleptic test. Shikwang, Korea.
  2. Kohler, J. J., A. B. Erickson and J. L. Meyer. 1994. Method and apparatus for producing reduced lactose milk. U.S. patent, 5,357,852.
  3. Mattila-Sandholm, T. and M. Saarela. 2003. Functional dairy products, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. pp. 9-10.
  4. Nystrom, M., L. Kaipia and S. M. Luque. 1995. Fouling and retention of nanofiltration membranes. J. Membrane Sci. 98:249-262.
  5. Yoon, Y. C. and J. M. Jayaprakasha. 2005. Production of functional whey protein concentrate by monitoring the process of ultrafilteration. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:433-438.
  6. DePeters, E. J. and J. D. Ferguson. 1992. Nonprotein nitrogen and protein destribution in the milk of cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3192-3209.
  7. Tossavainen, O. and J. Sahlstein. 2003. Process for producing a lactose-free milk product. WO 03/094623.
  8. Lange, M. 2003. Process for making a lactose-free milk and milk so processed. U.S. patent 20030031754.
  9. Albala-Hurtado, S., M. T. Veciana-Nogues, M. Izquierdo-Pulido and A. Marine-Font. 1997. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in infant milk by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chroma. 778:247-253.
  10. Kim, J. W. 1994. Studies on the lactose intolerance of Korean. Korean J. Dairy Sci. 16:105-114.
  11. Boey, C. C. 2001. Lactase deficiency among Malaysian children with recurrent abdominal pain. J. Paediatr. Child Health. 37:157-160.
  12. Marshall, R. T. 1993. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. APHA, Washington.
  13. Jackson, K. A. and D. A. Savaiano. 2001. Lactose maldigestion, calcium intake, and osteoporosis in African-, Asian-, and Hispanic-Americans. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 20:198S-207S.
  14. Jirage, K. B. and C. R. Martin. 1999. New developments in membrane-based separations. Trends Biotechnol. 17:197-200.
  15. Renner, E. and M. H. Abd El-Salam. 1991. Application of ultrafiltration in the dairy industry, Elsevier Applied Science.
  16. Varnam, A. H. and J. P. Sutherland. 1994. Milk and milk products -technology, chemistry, and microbiology. Chapman and Hall, London.

Cited by

  1. Development of a Sensory Lexicon for Dairy Protein Hydrolysates vol.29, pp.6, 2014,