Different Sources and Levels of Copper Supplementation on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Castrated Black Bengal (Capra hircus) Kids Diet

  • Mondal, M.K. (Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences) ;
  • Biswas, P. (Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences)
  • Received : 2005.08.12
  • Accepted : 2006.06.30
  • Published : 2007.07.01


Twenty eight 3-4 month old castrated Black Bengal kids (Capra hircus) were used to determine the effects of source and level of dietary copper (Cu) concentration on their performance and nutrient utilization. Cu was supplemented (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg diet DM) as copper sulfate ($CuSO_4$, $5H_2O$) or copper proteinate (Cu-P). Kids were fed a basal diet containing maize (19.5%), soybean (17.0%), deoiled rice bran (56.5%), molasses (4.0%), di-calcium phosphate and salt (1.0% each) and mineral and vitamin mixture (0.5% each) supplements at 3.5% of body weight to meet NRC (1981) requirements for protein, energy, macro minerals and micro minerals, excluding Cu. The basal diet contained 5.7 mg Cu/kg, 122.5 mg Fe/kg, 110 mg Zn/kg, 0.26 mg Mo/kg and 0.32% S. $CuSO_4$ or Cu-P was added to the basal diet at the rate of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg. Kids were housed in a well ventilated shed with facilities for individual feeding in aluminum plated metabolic cages. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 0, 30, 60 and 90 to determine hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase and aspertate transferase). A metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted after 90 days of experimental feeding. Statistical analysis revealed that source and level of Cu supplementation improved live weight gain (p<0.04) and average daily gain (p<0.01). No significant contribution of source and level of Cu to alter serum serum enzymes was evident. Goats fed Cu-P tended to have higher Hb, PCV and TEC than with $CuSO_4$ supplementation. Cu-P increased digestibility of ether extract (EE, p<0.02) and crude fiber (p<0.05) and showed an increasing trend (p<0.09) for digested crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF). Supplemental dose of Cu linearly improved (p<0.02) digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), EE and nitrogen free extract (NFE). Though the absorption of nitrogen (N) was not affected (p>0.10) by both source and dose of Cu, N retention was affected (p<0.04) and there was a significant $Source{\times}Dose$ interaction (p<0.05). Final body weight (BW) was not influenced (p>0.10) by the source of Cu but increasing dose of Cu increased (p<0.04) the BW of kids. TDN intake (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was higher (p<0.05) with the increased dose of Cu and there was a significant $Source{\times}Dose$ interaction. It was concluded that supplementation of Cu from different sources and varying dose level in a concentrate based diet may improve performance, nutrient utilization and plane of nutrition in castrated Black Bengal kids. The effects on performance and nutrient utilization are more pronounced with Cu-P than $CuSO_4$ supplementation. Higher dose of Cu showed better result than lower dose.


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