Effect of Herb Distillate on Hepatic Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Serum Lipid Profiles in Carbon Tetrachloride-Administered Rats

  • Park, Bum-Ho (Department of Food Science and Technology, Catholic University of Daegu) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Il (Department of Food Nutrition and Cookery, Keimyung College) ;
  • Kim, Soon-Dong (Department of Food Science and Technology, Catholic University of Daegu)
  • Published : 2007.03.31


In order to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of an herb distillate, ie., a mixture of 28 traditional Korean herbs, germanium, tormarine and Gijangsoo (Gijang water), $CCl_4$ was intraperitoneally administered to rats before or after supplementation of the diluted herb distillate (HD) for 2 weeks. Then hepatic xanthine oxidase activity and serum lipid profiles were determined. The experimental groups had higher feed intake than the normal control (NC), but had lower weight gain. Water intake and the amount of feces were not significantly different, but urine was excreted in lower amounts in all the experimental groups compared to the NC. Liver weights in the HD-supplemented groups were lower than that of the distilled water-supplemented groups (DW-groups) after $CCl_4$-administration. Serum ALT activities in all the experimental groups were higher than that of the NC-group. However, the increasing activity of serum ALT in the HD-supplemented groups (HD-groups) was lower than that of the DW-groups. Total serum and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher in all the $CCl_4$-administered groups than in the NC-groups, and serum HDL-cholesterol levels were lower in all the experimental groups compared with the NC-groups. Meanwhile, the increasing rate of total serum and LDL-cholesterol levels and the decreasing rate of HDL-cholesterol in the HD-groups were lower than that of the DW-groups. But, levels of serum TG were similar among all the experimental groups. The activities of hepatic xanthine oxidase (XOD) type O of the $CCl_4$-administered rats showed a significant increase in and an increasing rate of XOD in the HD-groups, which was lower than that of the DW-groups. On the other hand, GST activities in all the experimental groups were significantly decreased, and the decreasing rate was lower in the HD-groups than in the DW-groups. The hepatic contents of GSH and LPO in all the rats were not changed by $CCl_4$ administration. These results suggest that the decreased liver damage in the HD-supplemented groups was due to the inhibition of XOD-type O activity by constituents of HD, as well as by a prevention/inhibition of serum lipid profile changes in $CCl_4$-treated rats. However, further detailed studies are needed to support this hypothesis.


  1. Marieb EN. 1998. Human Anantomy & Physiology. 4 ed. Benjamin/Cummimgs Science Publishing, California, USA. p 1006-1007
  2. Park JH, Jin JH, Kim HJ, Park HR, Lee SC. 2005. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of extracts from rice hulls. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 131-134
  3. Kim EJ, Lee KI, Park KY. 2004. The growth inhibition against gastric cancer cell in germanium or soybean sprouts cultured with germanium. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 20: 287-291
  4. Yoo BH, Park CM, Oh TJ, Han SH, Kang HH, Chang IS. 2002. Investigation of jewelry powders radiating far-infrared rays and the biological effects on human skin. J Cosmet Sci 53: 175-184
  5. Kang JY, Kang SC, Park S. 2000. Effect of filtrate of loess suspension on growth and quality soybean sprouts. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 43: 266-270
  6. Kim SD, Ku YS, Lee IZ, Kim ID, Youn KS. 2001. Gerneral components and sensory evaluation of hot water extract from Liriopis tuber. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 20-24
  7. Miao TJ, Xiong RC. 1984. The use of Chinese herbs folium chinensis decoction plus eucalyptus distillate for preoperative preparation of intestinal tract. J Tradit Chin Med 4: 149-152
  8. Kim SH, Hwang SY, Park OS, Kim MK, Chung YJ. 2005. Effect of Pinus densiflora extract on blood glucose level, OGTT and biochemical parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 973-979
  9. Stirpe F, Della Corte E. 1969. The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. J Biol Chem 244: 3855-3863
  10. Habig WH, Pabist MJ, Jakoby WB. 1974. Glutathione S-transferase. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249: 7130-7139
  11. Ellman GL. 1959. Tissue sulfhydryl group. Arch Biochem Biophys 82: 70-77
  12. Satho K. 1978. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin Chim Acta 90: 37-43
  13. Sandhofer F. 1994. Physiology and pathophysiology of the metabolism of lipoproteins. Wien Med Wochenschr 144: 286-290
  14. Corvilain B. 1997. Lipoprotein metabolism. Rev Med Brux 18: 3-9
  15. Robbinson DS. 1962. The development in the rat of fatty livers associated with reduced plasma-lipoprotein synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 62: 163-165
  16. Wakasugi JW, Katami K, Ikeda T, Tomikawa M. 1985. Action of malotilate on reduced serum cholesterol level in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Japan J Pharmacol 38: 391-401
  17. Maldonado V, Chan L, Melendez J, Rincon AR, Zhu HJ, Panduro A. 1994. Regulation of apo B mRNA expression in liver and intestine during liver regeneration induced by $CCl_4$. Biochim Biophys Acta 1211: 1-6
  18. Boll M, Weber LW, Becker E, Stampfl A. 2001. Hepatocyte damage induced by carbon tetrachloride: inhibited lipoprotein secretion and changed lipoprotein composition. Z Naturforsch [C] 56: 283-290
  19. Barisione G, Fontana L, Cottalasso D, Domenicotti C, Pronzato MA, Nanni G. 1993. Changes in lipogly-coprotein metabolism in toxic fatty liver. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 39: 101-112
  20. Spector AA. 1984. Plasma lipid transport. Clin Physiol Biochem 2: 123-134
  21. Honma T. 1990. Effect of trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride on plasma lipoproteins of rats. Ind Health 28: 159-174
  22. Gergely J, Kulcsar A, Harsfalvi J. 1995. Changes in fat metabolism in acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication of rats. Acta Pharm Hung 65: 3-4
  23. Yamada H. 1991. Natural products of commercial potential as medicines. Curr Opin Biotech 2: 203-207
  24. Shin KH, Han JM, Lee IR. 1996. Effect of the constituents of Angelicae ginantis radix on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Kor J Pharmacogn 27: 323-327
  25. Wang CY, Ma FL, Liu JT, Tian JW, Fu FH. 2007. Protective effect of salvianic acid A on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 30: 44-47
  26. Yoon CG, Huh K. 1989. Effect of carbon tetrachloride intoxication on the type conversion of xanthine dehy-drogenase into xanthine oxidase in rats. Arch Pharm Res 10: 36-41
  27. Nishino T, Tamura I. 1991. The mechanism of conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase and the role of the enzyme in reperfusion injury. Adv Exp Med Biol 309: 327-337
  28. Fridovich I. 1970. Quantitative aspects of the production of superoxide anion radical by milk xanthine oxidase. J Biol Chem 245: 4053-4057
  29. Aebi H. 1974. Catalase. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Bergmeyer HU, ed. Academic Press, New York. Vol 2, p 673-674
  30. Chow CK, Tappel AL. 1974. Respose of glutathione peroxidase to dietary selenium in rats. J Nutr 104: 444-451
  31. Fried R. 1975. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic assay of superoxide dismutase. Biochimie 57: 657-660
  32. Jacoby JB. 1978. The glutathione S-transferases: a group of multifunctional detoxification proteins. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 46: 383-414
  33. Hayes JD, McLellan LI. 1999. Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes represent a co-ordinately regulated defence against oxidative stress. Free Radic Res 31: 273-300
  34. Freeman BA, Crapo JD. 1982. Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury. Lab Invest 47: 412-426
  35. Frank L. 1991. Developmental aspects of experimental pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Free Radic Biol Med 11: 463-494
  36. Plaa GL, Witschin H. 1976. Chemicals, drugs and lipid peroxidation. Am Rev Toxicol Pharmacol 16: 125-141
  37. Lee CW, Jeong WI, Noh DH, Jeong DH, Do SH, Kim YK, Kwon OD, Kim TH, Jeong KS. 2005. Protective effects of bio-active ceramic water on alcohol-induced hepatic injury in pigs. J Vet Med Sci 67: 403-409
  38. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. 1972. Estima-tion of the concentration of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultra-centrifuge. Clin Chem 18: 499-502
  39. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RL. 1951. Protein measurement by folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265-275
  40. Yokota F, Igarashi Y, Suzue R. 1982. Effects of ethionine feeding on fatty liver and plasma lipoprotein fractions in rats. J Nutr 112: 405-409
  41. Honma T, Suda M. 1997. Changes in plasma lipoproteins as toxicity markers for carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane. Ind Health 35: 519-531
  42. Kim MR, El-Aty AM, Kim IS, Shim JH. 2006. Deter-mination of volatile flavor components in danggui cultivars by solvent-free injection and hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrophometric analysis. J Chromatogr A 1116: 259-264
  43. Nishino T, Nishino T. 1997. The conversion from the dehydrogenase type to the oxidase type of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase by modification of cysteine residues with fluorodinitrobenzene. J Biol Chem 272: 29859-29864
  44. McCord JM. 1974. Free radical and inflammation: pro-tection of snovial fluid by superoxide dismutase. Science 185: 529-531
  45. Lebovitz BE, Siegel BV. 1980. Aspects of free radical reactions in biological systems: aging. J Gerontol 35: 45-56