Survival of Double-Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium breve in Milk in Simulated Gastric and Small Intestinal Conditions

  • Jung, Ji-Kang (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kil, Jeung-Ha (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Kyo (R&D Center, Vilac Company LTD.) ;
  • Jeon, Jung-Tae (R&D Center, Vilac Company LTD.) ;
  • Park, Kun-Young (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University)
  • Published : 2007.03.31


Bifidobacteria are probiotic organisms that provide both flavor and health benefits when incorporated as live cultures into commercial dairy products. Because bifidobacteria are very sensitive to environmental conditions (acids, temperature, oxygen, bile salts, the presence of other cultures, etc.), their viability in human gastrointestinal tract is limited. The microencapsulation of bifidobacteria is a process to protect them against harsh environmental conditions, thereby increasing their viability while passing through human gastrointestinal tract. To confirm the survival rate of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium breve CBG-C2 in milk, their survival rate was compared with several kinds of free bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in commercial yogurt products under simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions. Double-microencapsulation of the bacteria was employed to increase the survival rate during digestion. The outer layer was covered with starch and gelatin to endure gastric conditions, and the inner layer was composed of a hard oil for the upper small intestinal regions. Almost all microencapsulted bifidobacteria in the milk survived longer than the free bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in the commericial yogurt products under the simulated gastric conditions. Numbers of surviving free bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in the commercial products were significantly reduced, however, the viability of the microencapsulated bificobacteria in the milk remained quite stable under gastric and small intestine conditions over 3$\sim$6 hrs. Thus double-microencapsualtion of bifidobacteria in milk is a promising method for improving the survival of bifidobacteria during the digestive process.


  1. Simon GL, Gorbach SL. 1984. Intestinal flora in health and disease. Gastroenterology 86: 174-193
  2. Ishibashi N, Shimamura S, 1993. Bifidobacteria: research and development in Japan. Food Technol 6: 126-136
  3. Cui JH, Shim JM, Lee JS, Lee BJ. 2000. Gastric acid resistance of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in commercial drink and lipid yogurts. Kor J Microbiol 36: 161-165
  4. Chen RM, Wu JJ, Lee SC, Huang AH, Wu HM. 1999. Increase of intestinal bifidobacterium and suppression of coliform bacteria with short-term ingestion. J Dairy Sci 82: 2308-2314
  5. Kim HS, Kamara BJ, Good IC, Enders GL. 1988. Method for the preperation of stable microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 3: 253-257
  6. Lim F, Moss RD. 1981. Microencapsulation of living cells and tissues. J Pharm Sci 70: 351-354
  7. Kwok KK, Groves MJ, Burgess DJ. 1992. A novel method for the determination of sterility of microcapsules and measurement of viability of encapsulated organisms. Pharm Res 9: 410-413
  8. Rao A, Shiwnarain VN, Maharaj I. 1989. Survival of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Can Inst Food Technol J 22: 345-349
  9. Modler HW, McKeller RC, Yaguchi M. 1990. Bifidobadteria and Bifidogenic factors. Inst Food Sci Technol J 23: 29-41
  10. Hughes DB, Hoover DG. 1991. Bifidobacteria: their potential for use in American dairy products. Food Technol 45: 74-83
  11. Sun W, Griffiths MW. 2000. Survival of bifidobacteria in yogurt and simulated gastric juice following immobillization in gellan-xanthan beads. Int J Food Microbiol 61: 17-25
  12. Siuta-Cruce P, Goulet J. 2001. Improving probiotic survival rates. Food Technol 55: 36-42
  13. Park BG. 2004. Optimization of condition for the double-microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria. MS Thesis. Seoul Natl Univ of Technol, Seoul, Korea
  14. Vanloo J, Coussement P, Deleenheer L, Hoebregs H, Smit G. 1995. On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35: 525-552
  15. Griffin IJ, Davila PM, Abrams SA. 2002. Non-digestible oligosaccharides and calcium absorption girls with adequate calcium intake. British J Nutr 87: S187-S191
  16. Roberfroid MB, Cumps J, Devogelaer JP. 2002. Dietary chicory inulin increases whole-body bone mineral density in growing male rats. J Nutr 132: 3599-3602
  17. Van den Heuvel EGHM, Scaafsma G, Muys T, Van Dokkum W. 1998. Nondigestible oligosaccharides do not interfere with calcium and nonheme-iron absorption in young healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 67: 445-451
  18. Coudray C, Bellanger J, Castiglia-Delavaud C, Remesy C, Vermorel M, Rayssignuier Y. 1997. Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibers supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in heathy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 51: 375-380
  19. Niness KR. 1999. Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? J Nutr 129: 1402S-1406S
  20. Lee BJ. 2003. Microencapsulation of vitamin C and its effect on iron bioavailability in iron fortified milk. MS Thesis. Sejong Univ., Seoul, Korea
  21. Gilliland SE. 1989. Acidophilus milk product a review of potential benefits to consumers. J Dairy Sci 72: 2483- 2494
  22. Rasic LJ, Kurmann JA. 1983. Bifidobacteria and their role. Birkhauser, Bern, Switzerland. p 8-34
  23. Favaro-trindade CS, Grosso CR. 2002. Microencapsulation of L. acidophilus (La-05) and B. lactis (Bb-12) and evaluation of their survival at the pH values of the stomach and in bile. J Microencapsul 19: 485-494
  24. Cui JH, Goh JS, Kim PH, Choi SH, Lee BJ. 2000. Survival and stability of bifidobacteria loaded in alginate poly-L-lysine microparticles. Int J Food Pharm 210: 51-59
  25. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic micrbiota-Introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125: 1401-1412
  26. Ohta A, Ohtsuki M, Uehara M, Hosono A, Hirayma M, Adachi T, Hara H. 1998. Dietary fructoologosaccharides prevent post gastrectomy anemia and osteopenia in rats. J Nutr 128: 485-490
  27. Lian WC, Hsiao HC, Chou CC. 2003. Viability of microencapsulated bifidobacteria in simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Int J Food Microbiol 86: 293-301

Cited by

  1. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products vol.52, pp.8, 2015,
  2. Probiotic Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides Isolated from Kimchi vol.45, pp.1, 2016,
  3. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs vol.67, pp.8, 2016,
  4. Protecting probiotic bacteria by microencapsulation: challenges for industrial applications vol.231, pp.1, 2010,