Viscosity and Wettability of Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) solutions and Artificial Saliva

Carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) 용액과 인공 타액의 점도와 습윤성

  • Park, Moon-Soo (Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis & Research Institute of Oral Science, College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University) ;
  • Kim, Young-Jun (Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis & Research Institute of Oral Science, College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University)
  • 박문수 (강릉대학교 치과대학 구강내과.진단학 교실 및 구강과학연구소) ;
  • 김영준 (강릉대학교 치과대학 구강내과.진단학 교실 및 구강과학연구소)
  • Published : 2007.12.30


Destruction of oral soft and hard tissues and resulting problems seriously affect the life quality of xerostomic patients. Although artificial saliva is the only regimen for xerostomic patients with totally abolished salivary glands, currently available artificial salivas give restricted satisfaction to patients. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the development of ideal artificial saliva through comparing viscosity and wettability between CMC solutions and human saliva. Commercially-available CMC is dissolved in simulated salivary buffer (SSB) and distilled deionized water (DDW). Various properties of human whole saliva, human glandular saliva, and a CMC-based saliva substitutes known as Salivart and Moi-Stir were compared with those of CMC solutions. Viscosity was measured with a cone-and-plate digital viscometer at six different shear rates, while wettability on acrylic resin and Co-Cr alloy was determined by the contact angle. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The viscosity of CMC solutions was proportional to CMC concentration, with 0.5% CMC solution displaying similar viscosity to stimulated whole saliva. Where as a decrease in contact angle was found with increasing CMC concentration. 2. The viscosity of human saliva was found to be inversely proportional to shear rate, a non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) trait of biological fluids. The mean viscosity values at various shear rates increased as follows: stimulated parotid saliva, stimulated whole saliva, unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated submandibular-sublingual saliva. 3. Contact angles of human saliva on the tested solid phases were inversely correlated with viscosity, namely decreasing in the order stimulated parotid saliva, stimulated whole saliva, unstimulated whole saliva, stimulated submandibular-sublingual saliva. 4. Boiled CMC dissolved in SSB (CMC-SSB) had a lower viscosity than CMC-SSB (P < 0.01 at shear rate of $90s^{-1}$). 5. For human saliva, contact angles on acrylic resin were significantly lower than those on Co-Cr alloy (P < 0.01). 6. Comparing CMC solutions with human saliva, the contact angles between acrylic resin and human saliva solutions were significantly lower than those between acrylic resin and CMC solutions, including Salivart and Moi-Stir (P <0.01). The effectiveness of CMC solutions in terms of their rheological properties was objectively confirmed, indicating a vital role for CMC in the development of effective salivary substitutes.


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