The Effects of Reciprocal Peer Questioning Strategy in Concept Learning on the Three States of Matter and Motion of Molecules

물질의 세 가지 상태 및 분자의 운동에 대한 개념 학습에서 상호동료 질문생성 전략의 효과

  • Published : 2007.08.30


In this study, the effects of reciprocal peer questioning (RPQ) strategy upon students' concept learning were investigated. Ninety-two seventh graders at a co-ed middle school were assigned to control, reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT), and RPQ groups. The students were taught about 'three states of matter' and 'motion of molecules' for 12 class hours. Regardless of students' prior science achievement level, the RPQ group showed the highest scores among the three groups in the test of conceptual understanding, and the RPT group performed better than the control group. For high-level students, the scores of the RPQ group were significantly higher than those of the other groups in the test of the concept application, and those of the RPT group were higher than those of the control group. For low-level students, the scores of the RPT and RPQ groups in the concept application test were significantly higher than those of the control group, while those of the RPT and RPQ groups were not significantly different. These results indicated that verbal interaction by reciprocal tutoring helped students to understand chemical concept learning, and that using self-generated questions was more effective. Therefore, RPQ strategy is suggested to become one of the useful instructional methods to facilitate verbal interaction and concept learning in middle school science instructions.


reciprocal peer questioning;reciprocal peer tutoring;science concept learning;conceptual understanding;concept application


  1. Rittschof, K. A., & Griffin, B. W. (2001). Reciprocal peer tutoring: Re-examining the value of a cooperative learning. Educational Psychology, 21(3), 313-331
  2. Song, S. H. (1998). The effects of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction developed through the ARCS model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Floride State University
  3. King, A, & Rosenshine, B. (1993). Effects of guided cooperative questioning on children's knowledge construction. Journal of Experimental Education, 61(2), 127-148
  4. 노태희, 김소연, 김경순 (2005). 중학교 과학 수업에서 학생들의 구조화된 상호작용을 유도하기 위한 상호 동료교수 전략의 효과. 한국과학교육학회지, 25(4), 465-471
  5. Ginsburg-Block, M, & Fantuzzo, J. (1997). Reciprocal peer tutoring: An analysis of 'teacher' and 'student' interactions as a function of training and experience. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(2), 134-149
  6. King, A, Staffieri, A, & Adelgais, A. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134-152
  7. Puchner, L. D. (2003). Children teaching for learning: What happens when children teach others in the classroom? ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 478759
  8. Griffin, B. W., & Griffin, M. M. (1997). The effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on graduate students' achievement, test anxiety, and academic self-efficacy. The Journal of Experimental Education, 65, 197-209
  9. King, A. (2002). Structuring peer interaction to promote high-level cognitive processing. Theory Into Practice, 41 (1), 33-39
  10. Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21 (1), 43-69
  11. 이윤옥 (2001). 또래 튜터링 질문생성이 학습과 창의성에 미치는 효과. 교육심리연구, 15(4), 423-440
  12. Klecker, B. M. (2003). Fonmtive classroom assessrrent using cooperative groups: Vygotsky and random assignment. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(3), 216-219
  13. Fantuzzo, J. W., Dimeff, L. A, & Fox, S. L. (1989). Reciprocal peer tutoring: A multimodal assessment of effectiveness with college students. Teaching of Psychology, 16(3), 133-135
  14. Griffin, B. W., & Griffin, M. M. (1998). An investigation of the effects of peer tutoring on achievement, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 298-311
  15. Pigott, H. E., Fantuzzo, J. W., & Oement, P. W. (1986). The effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and group contingencies on the academic performance of elementary school children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19(1), 93-98
  16. Webb, N. M, & Palincsar, A. S. (1996). Group processes in the classroom In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfree (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 841-873). New York: Macmillan
  17. Noh, T., & Scharmann, L. C. (1997). Instructional influence of a molecular-level pictorial presentation of matter on students' conceptions and problem-solving ability. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(2), 199-217<199::AID-TEA6>3.0.CO;2-O
  18. 장언효, 이윤옥 (2000) 수업내용 질문 생성과 사전 지식 질문 생성이 정보 이해와 언어적 상호작용 수준에 미치는 효과, 교육심리연구. 14(1) 45-70
  19. Sanders, P. (2001). Peer tutoring: An effective instructional strategy. Parer presented at the Louisiana Educational Research Association, Annual Conference, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
  20. Fantuzzo, J. W., King, J. A., & Heller, L. R. (1992). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on mathematics and school adjustment: A component analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 331-339
  21. King, A. ( 1994). Guiding knowledge construction in the classroom: Effect of teaching children how the question and how to explain. American Educational Research Journal, 31 (2), 338-368
  22. 이윤옥 (2003). 인지양식별 또래 튜터링 질문수업이 학습에 미치는 효과, 초등교육연구, 16(1), 161-177
  23. Chin, C, Brown, D. E., & Bruce, B. C. (2002). Student-generated questions: A meaningful aspect of learning in science. International Jourral of Science Education, 24(5), 521-549