Analyses of the Basic Inquiry Process in Korean 3-10 Grade Science Textbooks: Focused on Observation and Measurement

우리나라 3-10학년 과학 교과서에 나타난 기초탐구과정 분석: 관찰 및 측정 탐구요소를 중심으로

  • Published : 2007.08.30


The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of observation and measurement inquiry process in the Korean science textbooks. For the inquiry process of observation, the higher grade textbooks contained more 'comparative observation' rather than 'simple observation'. Students should express their observation results in written words rather than verbal descriptions in the higher grade. For the inquiry process of measurement, the temperature measurement was the most frequent measurement activity. 'Measurement design' was found more frequently in the lower grade textbooks. The uses of measurement tools were not presented systematically and were presented restrictively when the relevant experiment wanted to use these tools. The higher grade textbooks include 'quantitative measurements' rather than 'qualitative measurements' and 'operation measurement' rather than 'simple measurement'. In the application of measurement results, we had difficulty in finding the activities related with the usage of unit, unit conversion, significant figure, error and uncertainty.


basic inquiry process;science textbook;observation;measurement


  1. 서울대학교 과학교육연구소 (2005). 성공적인 중학 과학 탐구수업을 위한 길라잡이 자료
  2. 이봉우 (2005). 외국 과학교육과정의 탐구기준 비교 분석. 한국과학교육학회지, 25(7), 873-884
  3. American Association for the Advancement of Science (1994). Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy: Project 2061. New York, USA Oxford University Press
  4. Bell, R. L., Blair, L. M, Crawford, B. A, & Lederman, N. G. (2003) . Just do it? Impact of science appren- ticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry. Joumal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, 487-509
  5. Chadwick, B., & Barlow, S. (1994). Science in perspective: Book 1. Marrickvil. Australia: Science Press
  6. National Research Council (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C, USA: National Academy Press
  7. National Research Council (2000). Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C, USA: National Academy Press
  8. Park, Jongwon & Kim, Ikgyun. (2004). Classification of Students' Observational Statements in Science. in R Nata (Ed.), Progress in Education, Vol.13. (pp.139-154) NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc
  9. American Association for the Advancement of Science (1990). Science - A Process Approach II. Delta Education, Inc
  10. Driver, R, Gott, R, Johnson, S., Worsley, C, & Wylie. F (1982). Science in Schools. Age 15: Report No1. London: HMSO
  11. 이봉우, 김희경 (2007). 외국 과학교육과정의 관찰과 측정 기준 분석. 초등과학교육, 26(1), 87-96
  12. Germann, P. J., Haskins, S., & Auls, S. (1996). Analysis of nine high school biology laboratory manuals: Promoting scientific inquiry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 475-499<475::AID-TEA2>3.0.CO;2-O
  13. Klopfer, L. (1990). Learning scientific inquiry in the student laboratory. In E. Hegarty-Hazelflid.), The student laboratory and the science curriculum (p.101 ). London: Rutledge
  14. Malcolm, C. (1987). The science framework P-10: Science for every child. Melbourne, Australia: Ministry of Education
  15. 서정아 (2002). 측정이론에 관한 중학교 1학년 학생의 선개념 조사, 한국과학교육학회지, 22(3), 455-465
  16. Hodson, D. (1998). Is this really what scientists do? Seeking a more authentic science in and beyond the school laboratory. In J. J. Wellington (Ed.), Practical Work in School Sciencetpp. 93-108). NY: Routledge
  17. Wellington, J. J. (1998). Practical work in science: time for a reappraisaL In J. J. Wellington(Ed.), Practical work in school science (pp. 3-15). NY: Routledge
  18. 이재봉, 이성묵 (2006) 학생들의 측정불확실도 개념의 결핍으로 인한 물리탐구과정에서의 어려움 분석. 한국과학교육학회지, 26(4), 581-591
  19. Penner, D. E., & Klahr, D. (1996). The interaction of domain-specific knowledge and domain general discovery strategies: A study with sinking objects. Child Developrrent, 67
  20. American Association for the Advancement of Science (1965). Science - A Process Approach. Washington, DC: Ginn and Co
  21. Tamir, P. & Lunetta, V. N. (1981). Inquiry related tasks in high school science laboratory handbooks. Science Education, 65, 477-484
  22. 조희형, 최경희 (2000). 과학 교수 학습과 수행평가 서울: 교육과학사
  23. Lubben, F, Campbell, B., buffler, a., & Allie, S. (2001). Point and set seasoning in practical science measurement by entering university freshman. Science Education, 85(4), 311-327
  24. Welch, W. W. (1981). Inquiry in school science. In N. Hams, & R. Yager, Project synthesis, What research says, Vol 3 NSTA
  25. 교육부 (1997). 과학과 교육과정 서울: 대한교과서 주식회사
  26. Abd-EI-Khalick, F, Bell, R. L., & Lederman, N. G. ( 1998). The nature of science and instructional practice: Making the unnatural. Science Education, 82, 417-436<417::AID-SCE1>3.0.CO;2-E
  27. Buffler, A, Allie, S., Lubben, F & Campbell, B. (2001). The development of first year physics students' ideas about measurement in terms of point and set paradigms. International Journal of Science Education, 23(11), 1137-1156