Choi, Hyeok-Sun

  • 발행 : 2007.09.28


The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of low concentration of oxygen on reduction of perchlorate, especially low perchlorate influent concentrations in a biofilm reactor, as well as the effect of flow pattern in a biofilm reactor. Dissolved oxygen averaging 1 mg/L did not inhibit reduction of influent perchlorate from 23 to $426\;{\mu}g/L$ in the biofilm reactors when sufficient acetate was added, probably due to limitation of oxygen diffusion into the biofilm. Influent perchlorate ranging from 23 to $426\;{\mu}g/L$ was reduced to below detection level ($4\;{\mu}g/L$) in the presence of 1 mg/L dissolved oxygen (DO). Chloride was produced in a ratio of $0.37gCl^-/g{ClO_4}^-$ and $0.35gCl^-/g{ClO_4}^-$ in plug flow and recirculation biofilm reactor which is similar to stoichiometric amount ($0.36gCl^-/g{ClO_4}^-$) indicating complete perchlorate reduction at $426\;{\mu}g/L$ of ${ClO_4}^-$ feeding. At $23\;{\mu}g/L$L influent perchlorate, total biomass solids were 3.18 g and 2.81 g in the plug flow and recirculation biofilm reactors. The most probable number(MPN) analysis for perchlorate-reducing bacteria showed $10^4$ to $10^5\;cells/cm^2$ in both biofilm reactors throughout the experiments. The effluent perchlorate concentrations were not significantly different in the two different flow regimes, plug flow and recirculation biofilm reactors.


Biofilm reactor;Oxygen;Perchlorate


  1. Urbansky, E. T., 'Perchlorate chemistry: implications for analysis and remediation,' Bioremed. J., 2(2), 81-95 (1998)
  2. NRC, Health implications of perchlorate ingestion, Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press (2005)
  3. USFDA, httpt//
  4. Wallace, W., Beshear, S., Williams, D., Hospadar, S., and Owens, M., 'Perchlorate reduction by a mixed culture in an up-flow anaerobic fixed bed reactor,' J. Indust. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 20(2), 126-131 (1998)
  5. CDHS,
  6. Logan, B. E., 'A review of chlorate- and perchlorate- respring microorganisms,' Bioremed. J., 2(2), 69-79 (1998)
  7. Coates, J. D., Michaelidou, D., Bruce, R. A., O'connor, S. M., Crespi, J. N., and Achenbach, L. A., 'Ubiquity and diversity of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria,' Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65(12), 5234-5241 (1999)
  8. Erickson, B. E., 'Perchlorate found in Texas milk,' Environ. Sci. Technol. Science News, September25 (2003)
  9. Korenkov, V. N., Ivanovich, V., Kuznetsov, S. I., and Vorenov, J. V., 'Process for purification of industrial waste water from perchlorate and chlorates,' U.S. Patent No. 3943055 (1976)
  10. Malmqvist, A., Welander, T., Moore, E., Ternstrom, A., Molin, G., and Stenstrom, I., 'Ideonella dech loratans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new bacterium capable of growing anaerobically with chlorate as an electron acceptor,' Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 17, 58-64 (1994)
  11. van Ginkel, C. G., Plugge, C. M., and Stroo, C. A., 'Reduction of chlorate with various energy substrate and inocula under anaerobic conditions,' Chemosphere., 31(9), 4057-4066 (1995)
  12. Choi, H., and Silverstein, J., 'Effluent recirculation to improve perchlorate reduction in a fixed biofilm reactor,' Biotechnol. Bioeng., 98(1), 132-140 (2007)
  13. Attaway, H., and Smith, M., 'Reduction of perchlorate by an anaerobic enrichment culture,' J. Indust. Microbiolo., 12, 408-412 (1993)
  14. Herman, D. C., and Frankenberger, J. W. T., 'Microbial-mediated reduction of perchlorate in groundwater,' J. Environ. Qual., 27, 750754 (1998)
  15. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Washington DC.: APHA ( 1995)
  16. Rowe, R., Todd, R., and Waide, J., 'Microtechnique for Most-Probable-Number analysis,' Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 33(3), 675-680 (1977)
  17. Guerin, T. F., Mondido, M., McClenn, B., and Peasley, B., 'Application of resazurin for estimating abundance of contaminantdegrading micro-organisms,' Letters in Appl. Microbiol., 32, 340-345 (2001)