• Lee, Dong-Jin (National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex) ;
  • Chung, David (National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex) ;
  • Hwang, Jong-Yeon (National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex) ;
  • Choi, Hyun-Jin (National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex)
  • Published : 2007.06.21


Fixation of lead contaminants in the solidification/stabilization using Portland cement has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and compressive strength. The presence of lead was observed to produce lead carbonate sulfate hydroxide ($Pb_4SO_4(CO_3)_2(OH)_2$), lead carbonate hydroxide hydrate ($3PbCO_3{\cdot}2Pb(OH)_2{\cdot}H_2O$) and two other unidentified lead salts in cavity areas and was observed to significantly retard the hydration of cement. By 28 days, howevere, the XRD peaks of most of the lead precipitates have essentially disappeared with only residual traces of lead carbonate sulfate hydroxide and lead carbonate hydroxide hydrate evident. After 28 days of curing, hydration appears well advanced with a strong portlandite peak present though C-S-H gel peaks are not particularly evident. Lead species produced with the dissolution of lead precipitates are fixed into the cement matrix to be calcium lead silicate hydrate (C-Pb-S-H) during cement-based solidification.


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