Effects of Feeding Rye Silage on Growth Performance, Blood, and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

호맥 사일리지의 급여가 비육돈의 생산성, 혈액성상 및 도체특성에 미치는 효과

  • Cho, Jin-Ho (Department of Animal Resource & Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Han, Young-Keun (Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University) ;
  • Chen, Ying-Jie (Department of Animal Resource & Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Yoo, Jong-Sang (Department of Animal Resource & Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Jung-Woo (Department of Animal Resource & Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, In-Ho (Department of Animal Resource & Sciences, Dankook University)
  • 조진호 (단국대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 한영근 (성균관대학교 식품.생명공학과) ;
  • 진영걸 (단국대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 유종상 (단국대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 김정우 (단국대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 김인호 (단국대학교 동물자원과학과)
  • Published : 2007.06.30


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding rye silage on growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. The total of eighteen($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$) pigs($74.22{\pm}0.71kg$) were used for 49-day assay. Dietary treatments included 1) CON(basal diet), 2) S1(1.66% rye silage) and 3) S2(3.32% rye silage). In growth performance, from 4 to 7 weeks, average daily feed intake(ADFI) in pigs fed CON diet was higher than pigs fed S1 and S2 diets. Through the entire experimental period($0{\sim}7$ weeks), a ADFI in CON and S2 treatments was higher than S1 treatment (p<0.05). Serum cortisol concentration of pigs fed rye silage decreased significantly compared to pigs fed basal diet (p<0.05). The Hunter's $L^*$(lightness) value of loin in the pigs fed S2 diet was higher than that of loin in the pigs fed CON diet(p<0.05). The $b^*$(yellowness) value of loin in the pigs fed S1 and S2 diets were higher than CON treatment(p<0.05). Backfat thickness in CON treatment increased significantly compared to S1 and S2 treatments(p<0.05). Among fatty acid contents of lean meat, the contents of palmitic and stearic acids were significantly higher in CON than others(p<0.05), where as eicosenoic and linolenic acids were the highest in S2 treatment among treatments(p<0.05). Total SFA(saturated fatty acid) was the highest in CON(p<0.05) and S1 and S2 treatments were higher USFA/SFA(unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid) ratio than CON treatment. In fats, linolenic acid was higher in S2 treatment than those of S1 and CON treatments(p<0.05). Digestibility of dry matter in pigs fed S1 and S2 diets was greater than that of pigs fed CON diet(p<0.05) and S1 treatment was higher than others on digestibility of nitrogen(p<0.05). VFA(volatile fatty acid) emission from focal, measured after 1 day, increased significantly in pigs fed S1 and S2 diets(p<0.05). In conclusions, our results showed that feeding rye silage might be beneficial in decrease of cortisol concentration, hunter's $L^*$(lightness) value and $b^*$(yellowness), fatty acid contents, and nutrient digestibility. However, there should be more study on the relationship between feeding rye silagr and finishing pigs.

본 연구는 조사료인 호맥 사일리지를 배합사료와 혼합급여 시 비육돈의 성장, 혈액성상 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위해 시험을 실시하였다. 3원 교잡종($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$) 비육돈 18두를 공시하였으며 시험개시시 평균체중은 $74.22{\pm}0.71kg$이었고 28일간 개체별 사양시험을 실시하였다. 시험설계는 호맥 사일리지 첨가에 따라 1) Con(basal diet), 2) S1(basal diet+1.66% rye silage), 3) S2(basal diet+3.32% rye silage)로 3처리로 하여 처리당 6반복, 반복당 1마리씩 $1.8{\times}1.8m$ 크기의 돈방에 개별 수용하였다. 생산성에서 $4{\sim}7$주 동안 일당사료 섭취량에서는 CON구가 S1구와 S2구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 전체 사양시험기간 동안($0{\sim}7$주) 일당사료섭취량에서는 CON구와 S2구가 S1구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 혈중 스트레스 관련 호르몬인 코티졸 함량의 변화는 대조구와 비교하여 호맥 사일리지를 급여한 S1구와 S2구에서 유의적으로 감소하였다(p<0.05). 육색에서 명도를 나타내는 $L^*$값은 S2구가 CON구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났고(p<0.05) 황색도를 나타내는 $b^*$값은 S1구와 S2구가 CON구와 비교하여 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 도체 등지방 두께는 CON구가 S1구와 S2구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높게 증가하였다(p<0.05). 살코기 내 지방산 조성에서는 포화지방산 중 palmitic acid와 stearic acid의 함량은 CON구가 S1구와 S2구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높은 함량을 나타내었다(p<0.05). 불포화 지방산에서는 eicosenoic acid와 linolenic acid의 함량이 S2구가 CON구와 S1구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높았다(p<0.05). 총 포화지방산 함량은 CON구가 다른 처리구와 비교하여 가장 높았으며(p<0.05) 포화지방산과 불포화지방산 비율에서는 S1구와 S2구가 CON구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높은 결과를 보였다(p<0.05). 지방 내 지방산 조성에서는 불포화지방산 중 linolenic acid의 함량은 S2구가 S1구와 CON구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높았다(p<0.05). 건물 소화율에서는 S1구와 S2구가 CON구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났고(p<0.05) 질소 소화율에서는 S1구가 처리구중에서 가장 높은 결과를 보였다(p<0.05). 분변 내 휘발성 지방산 발생량에서는 분을 1일간 발효 후 측정한 결과 S1구와 S2구가 CON구와 비교하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(p<0.05). 결론적으로, 비육돈 사료 내 3.32%의 호맥 사일리지의 혼합급여는 혈액 내 코티졸 함량, 도체육의 명도와 황색도, 지방산 조성 및 영양소 소화율에 영향을 미치는 것으로 사료되나 이에 대한 보다 많은 연구가 필요할 것으로 판단된다.



  1. Allain, C. C, Poon, L. S., Chan, C. S. G, Richmond, W., and Fu, P. C. (1974) Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinic Chem. 20, 470-475
  2. AOAC. (1995) Official method of analysis. 16th ed. Association of official Analtical Chemists. Washington, D.C
  3. Bair, C. W. and Marion, W. W. (1978) Yolk cholesterol in egg from various avian species. Poult. Sci. 57, 1260-1265
  4. Briggle, L. W. (1959) Growing rye. USDA. Farmers Bull. No. 2145, pp. 16
  5. Chung, I. B., Cheong, S. K., Woo, Y. J., and Han, I. K. (1985) Effect of energy and crude fiber levels on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 27, 355-358
  6. Davidson, M. H. and McDonald, A. (1998) Fiber: Forms and function. Nutr. Res. 18, 617
  7. Dierick, N. A., Vervaeke, I. J.,Demeyer, D. I., and Decuy-pere, J. A. (1989) Approach to the energetic importance of fibre digestion in pigs. I. Importance of fermentation in the overall energy supply. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 23, 141-167
  8. Duncan, D. B. (1955) Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11, 1-14
  9. Eggum, B. O. (1995) The influence of dietary fibre on protein digestion and utilization in monogastrics. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 48, 89-98
  10. Folch, J., Lees, M., and Sloane-Stanley, G H. (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipid from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497-509
  11. Giusi-perier, A., Fiszlewics. M., and Rerat, A. (1989) Influence of diet composition on intestinal volatile fatty acid and nutrient absorption in unanesthetized pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 386-402
  12. Grundy, S. M. (1986) Comparison of monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates for lowering plasma cholesterol. N. Eng. J. Med. 314, 745-751
  13. Hagland, O., Luostarinen, R., Wallin, R., Wibell, L., and Saldeen, T. (1991) The effect of fish oil on triglyceride, cholesterol, fibrinogen and malonaldehyde in humans supplemented with vitamin E. J. Nutr. 121, 165-169
  14. Han, Y. K., Kim, D. G, and Lee, J. Y. (2001) Effects of Zizy-phus vulgaris Supplementation on Growth and Blood Cortisol and Endorpin in weanling pigs. J. Kyung Hee Univ. Med. Cent. 17, 183-186
  15. Han, Y K., Han, K. Y, and Lee, J. H. (2005) Effects of insoluble dietary fiber supplementation on performance and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 47, 565-572
  16. Henry, Y M. (1976) Prediction of energy values of feeds for swine form fiber contant. Proc. First Int. Symp. Feed Composition. Utah St. Univ., Logan, USA
  17. Hong, S. K., Lee, B. S., Kang, H. S., Cho, W. M., Lee, J. M., Baek, B. H., Kim, N. S., and Song, M. K. (1996) Effects of feeding various silage on the carcass characteristics of hanwoo sreers. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 38, 69-76
  18. Imoto, S. and Namioka, S. (1978a) VFA production in the pig large intestine. J. Anim. Sci. 47, 467-478
  19. Imoto, S. and Namioka, S. (1978b). VFA metabolism in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 47, 479-487
  20. Jonnalagadda, S. S., Thye, F. W., and Robertson, J.L. (1993) Plasma total and lipoprotein choleterol, liver cholesterol and fecal cholesterol excretion in hamsters fed fiber diets. J. Nutr. 123, 1388-1382
  21. Keys, A. (1980) Coronary heart disease in seven countries, circulation(suppl). XLI. 453
  22. Kim, I. S., Min, J. S., and Lee, M. (1998) Comparison of TBA, VBN, fatty acids composition, and sensory characteristics of the imported and domestic frozen pork bellies. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 40, 507-516
  23. Kim, S. J., Kim, Y. S., Song, Y. H., and Lee, S. K. (2002) Analysis of factors for seasonal meat color characteristics in hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef using decision tree method. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 44, 607-616
  24. Naoyuki, N. and Yoshiharu, F. (1995) The elevation ofplasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in mice fed with protein from proso millet. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 59, 333-335
  25. Noh, K. S. (1998) The effects of walking exercise on ACTH, Cortisol and -endorphin. Kor. Med. Sports 16, 233-237
  26. NRC. (1998) Nutrient Requirements of swine. National Research Council, Academy Press
  27. Roberfroid, M. (1993) Dietary fiber, insulin and oligofructose: A review comparing their physiological effects. Cri. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr. 33, 103-148
  28. Sakaguchi, E., Itoh, H., Kohno, T., Ohshima, S., and Mizutani, K. (1997) Fiber digestion and weight gain in guinea pigs fed diets containing different fiber sources. Exp. Anim. 46, 297-302
  29. Sakata, T. and Inagaki, A. (2001) Organic acid production in the large intestine: Implication for epithelil cell proliferation and cell death. In: Gut environment of pigs. Piva, A., Bach Kundsen, K. E., and Linberg, J. E. (eds.). 1st ed. Nothingum, Nothingam Univ., Press, 85
  30. Salobir, J. Vlaknina v prehrani prasicev. In: Zbornik preda-vanjn 8. posvetoanja o prehrani domacih zivali. Zadravcevi-Erjavcevi dnevi, radenci, 1999-10-28/29. Murska Sobota, zivinorejko veterinarski zavod za Pomurje, pp. 113
  31. SAS. (1996) SAS/STAT Software for PC. Release 6.11, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC
  32. Stahly, T. S. and Cromwell, G. L. (1986) Responses to dietary additions of fiber (alfalfa meal) in growing pigs housed in a cold, warm or hot thermal environment. J. Anim. Sci. 63, 1870-1876
  33. Varel, V. H. and Yen, J. T. (1997) Microbial perspective on fiber utilization by swine. J. Anim. Sci. 75, 2715-2722
  34. Vargass, R. E. and Naber, E. C. (1984) Relationship between dietary fiber and nutrient density and its effect on energy balance, egg yolk cholesterol and hen performance. J. Nutr. 114, 645-654
  35. Walker, M. E. and Morey, D. D. (1962) Influence of rates of N. P and K on Forage and Grain Production of Gator Rye in South Georgia. Univ. Ga. Expt. Sta. Cir. N.S. 27, pp. 15
  36. Yoo, M. I. and Han, I. K. (1982). Studies on the determining protein and energy requirements of swine. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 24, 167-177
  37. Zervas, S. and Zijlstra, R. T. (2002) Effects of dietary and oathull fiber on nitrogen excretion patterns and postprandial plasma urea profiles in grower pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80, 3238-3246
  38. Zoiopoulos, P. E., English, P. R., and Topps, J. H. (1982) High fibre diets for ad libitum feeding of sows during lactation. J. Agric. Sci. 59, 381-385
  39. Zoiopoulos, P. E., English, P. R., and Topps, J. H. (1983) A note on intake and digestibility of fibrous diet self fed to primiparous sows. Anim. Prod. 37, 153-156
  40. 남기윤 (2004) 느타리버섯 부산물 사일리지 급여가 흑돈의 생산형질, 도체특성 및 육질에 미치는 영향. 진주산업대학교 석사학위논문
  41. 조진호, 한영근, 민병준, 진연걸, 김해진, 유종상, 김정우, 김인호 (2005) 호맥 사일리지의 급여가 비육돈의 생산성, 혈액 성상 및 도체 특성에 미치는 효과. 한국축산식품학회지 25, 449-457
  42. 한인규, 최창애, 박태진, 정숙근 (1967) 고구마 양돈사료에 관한시험. 축산시험연구보고, pp. 453-481
  43. 한인규 (1996) 동물영양학. 신광출판사, 서울, pp. 162-165

Cited by

  1. Influences of Seleniferous Whole Crop Barley Supplement on Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics in Growing Pigs vol.32, pp.1, 2012,
  2. 총체맥류 분쇄 사일리지 조제를 위한 적정 수확시기 vol.37, pp.4, 2007,