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Temporal-spatial Variations of Water Quality in Gyeonggi Bay, West Coast of Korea, and Their Controlling Factor

한국 서해 경기만 연안역에서 수질환경의 시.공간적 변화 특성과 조절 요인

  • 임동일 (한국해양연구원 남해연구소) ;
  • 노경찬 (한국해양연구원 남해연구소) ;
  • 장풍국 (한국해양연구원 남해연구소) ;
  • 강선미 (한국해양연구원 남해연구소) ;
  • 정회수 (한국해양연구원 한중해양과학공동연구소) ;
  • 정래홍 (국립수산과학원 해양환경연구본부) ;
  • 이원찬 (국립수산과학원 해양환경연구본부)
  • Published : 2007.06.30

Abstract

Temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions and variations of various physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, COD, SPM, POC, silicate, DIP, DIN) in surface and bottom waters were studied in the coastal environment with typical macro-tidal range and monsoonal weather condition, Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea. Spacial distribution patterns of these factors were generally similar to each other, and appeared to be inversely related to the distribution pattern of salinity, suggesting that water quality of the study area was primarily controlled by the physical mixing process of Han-River freshwater with nearby coastal seawater. During flooding season, silicate- and nitrogen-rich Han River water directly flowed into offshore as far as $20\sim30\;km$ from the river mouth, probably causing serious environmental problems such as eutrophication and unusual and/or noxious algal bloom, etc. Except the surface water during summer flooding season, high concentrations of nutrients appeared generally in dry season, whereas low values in spring, possibly because of the occurrence of spring phytoplankton bloom. On the other hand, nutrient flux through the estuary seems to be primarily depending on river discharge, sewage discharge and agricultural activities, especially during the rainy season. Also, nutrients in this coastal waters are considered to be supplied from the sediments of tidal-flats, which developed extensively around the Han-River mouth, especially during fall and winter of dry and low discharge seasons, possibly due to the stirring of tidal flat sediments with highly enriched pore-water nutrients by storm. And also, COD and DIN concentrations in the study area consistently increased during the last 20 years, probably because of agricultural activities and increasing discharge of industrial and domestic wastes.

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