Use of Response Surface Methods to Optimize the Formula of Non-frozen Pound Cake

반응표면분석법에 의한 비동결 파운드 케이크의 최적 배합비 설정

  • Kang, Byung-Sun (Department of Food Fermentation Technology, Young-Dong University) ;
  • Lee, Young-Chun (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • 강병선 (영동대학교 와인발효식품학과) ;
  • 이영춘 (중앙대학교 식품공학과)
  • Published : 2007.10.28


The optimal formula for non-frozen pound cake was sought using a central composite design with a quadratic model, by response surface methodology (RSM). Behavior on supercooling, freezing time, theological properties, and sensory attributes of pound cake were studied by using various concentrations of sugar, sorbitol, and glycerol. The freezing temperature of standard pound cake was $-16.16^{\circ}C$. The hardness, freezing point temperature, and sensory properties were shown as a quadratic relationship whereas moisture content was analyzed by a linear model. Optimized formula for non-frozen cake were suggested to include (sugar:sorbitol:glycerol) 77.6:0.0:20.4, 60.0:32.8:16.4, and 70.8:11.2:19.6 (all % of total sugar) by RSM. The freezing tines of optimized non-frozen pound cake were reduced by $27{\sim}45%$. The freezing Points of optimized pound cake were depressed below $-20^{\circ}C$. Sorbitol and glycerol may be used as cryoprotectants and preserve the desired sensory attributes of pound cake at low temperatures.


  1. Le Bail, A., Grinand, C., Le Cleach, S., Martinez, S. and Quilin, E. (1999) Influence of storage conditions on frozen french bread dough. J. Food Engineering, 39, 289-291
  2. Fremond, M., Gormaz, R. and San Martin, J. A. (2001) A New Mathematical Model for Supercooling. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 261, 578-603
  3. Akyurt, M., Zaki, G. and Habeebullah, B. (2002) Freezing phenomena in ice water systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 43, 1773-1789
  4. Bae, N.G., Jeong, M.C., Kim, D.M., Moon, K.D. and Choi, J.U. (2000) Freshness extension of ginseng with freezing point depressing agents. Korean J. Postharvest Sci. Technol., 7, 57-62
  5. Lucas, T., Francois, J. and Raoult-Wack, A. (1998) Transport phenomena in immersion-cooled apples. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 33 489-499
  6. Jeong, J.W., Jo, J.H., Kwon, D.J. and Kim, Y.B. (1990) Studies on the low-temperature storage of strawberry pulp and red pepper paste by cryoprotectants. Korean J. Food Sci. & Technol., 22, 434-438
  7. Mogens J. (1984) Early investigations in 'The quality of frozen foods' Academic press Inc. London, p.5-32
  8. Matz, S.A. (1989) Freezing preservation of bakery products in 'Bakery Technology', Elsevier Science Publishers, USA, p.103-134
  9. Jackson, J.C., Bourne, M.C. and Barnard, J. (1996) Optimization of blanching for crispness of banana chips using response surface methodology. J. Food Sci., 61, 165-166
  10. Kang, B.S. and Lee, Y.C. (2001) Optimization of the Cryogenic Freezing Process for Carrot Slices, Food Sci. Biotechnol., 10, 40-44
  11. Ylimaki, G., Hawrysh, Z.J., Hardin, R.T. and Thomson, A.B.R. (1988) Application of response surface methodology to the development of rice flour yeast breads : Objective measurements. J. Food Sci., 53, 1800-1805
  12. Rouille, J., Le Bail, A. and Courcoux, P. (2000) Influence of formulation and mixing conditions on breadmaking qualities of French frozen dough, J. Food Engineering, 43, 197-203
  13. Lee, K.H. (1996) Sensory charateristics of pound cake baked from Korean wheat flour, Korean J. Food & Nutr., 9, 419-423
  14. Michael, A.S. (1981) Sweeteners functionality in cookies and crackers, Technical Bulletin, American Institute of Baking., 3, p.1-4
  15. Kook, S.U. (1996) Usage of liquid sugars for shelf life extension of the cake. Korean J. Food Nutr., 9, 259-264