Changes in the Physicochemical Characteristics of Green Wheat during Maturation

성숙과정 중 녹색밀의 이화학적 특성변화

  • Kim, Min-Chul (Dept. of Food Science & Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Ka-Soon (Geumsan Ginseng & Medicinal Crop Experiment Station, CNARES) ;
  • Lee, Byung-Jin (Haechandle Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kwon, Byung-Gu (Haechandle Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Ju, Jung-Il (Chungnam Province Agricultural Research and Extension Services) ;
  • Gu, Ja-Hyeong (Dept. of Horticulture, Chungnam Notional University) ;
  • Oh, Man-Jin (Dept. of Food Science & Technology, Chungnam National University)
  • Published : 2007.10.30


In order to evaluate the utilization of immature green wheat kernels as food processing material, these experiments were carried out to analyze general composition, free sugars, free amino acids, mineral content and color of 3 wheat varieties according to their heading dates. Contents such as moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash were gradually decreased according to the days after heading of 3 wheat varieties, while crude fiber and starch were gradually increased. Maltose and maltotriose contents in immature green wheat kernels were high but its rapidity decreased by closing to ripeness. Contents of free amino acids showed a tendency to decrease, among which alanine content was the highest around 25 days after heading, and then glutamic acid, GABA, glycine in order. Contents of total free amino acid were decreased by closing to ripeness. Among 3 wheat varieties, its contents of Guru wheat was the highest. As wheat matured, ${\beta}-glucan$ contents were decreased from 1.5% to 0.28% on 43 days after heading. Mineral contents of 3 wheat varieties were generally increased by closing to ripeness after coming into ears, and K, Mg were especially prominent. As wheat matured, lightness was decreased, while redness and yellowness were increased. Considering chemical composition and color, the immature green wheat were produced through blanching the spikes harvested before the yellow ripe stage. The harvested green wheat cereals is able to eat raw wheat or cook it as food processing material.


  1. 농림부. 2005. 농림업 주요통계. p 272
  2. Kim HK. 1989. The chemical composition of barley and wheat varieties. Korean J Food Sci Technol 19: 286-292
  3. Song JC, Park NK, Hur HS, Lee SY, Nam JH, Park MW. 1999. Comparison of volatile compounds between some domestic and imported wheat cultivars. Korean J Breed 31: 153-159
  4. Song JC, Lee SY, Park NK, Hur HS, Nam JH. 1998. Comparison of flour quality between domestic and imported wheat flour. Korean J Breed 30: 156-161
  5. Kim HY, Oh MS. 2001. Comparison of bread baking properties using domestic and imported flour and quality changes during storage. Korean J Dietary Culture 16: 27-32
  6. Lee SY, Hur HS, Song JC, Park NK, Chung WK, Nam JH, Chang HG. 1997. Comparison do noodle-related characteristics of domestic and imported wheat. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29: 44-50
  7. Hwang SY. 1988. Baking quality of flours and effect of oxidants. Korean J Food Technol 20: 890-894
  8. Lee CH, Lee HD, Kwon OH, Chang HG. 1984. Milling property of Australian wheats and physicochemical properties of the flours. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 27: 21-28
  9. Chang HG, Kim JY. 2004. Physicochemical characteristics and sugar-snap cookie potentialities of Korean wheats. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36: 754-760
  10. Jang EH, Lim HS, Koh BK, Lim ST. 1999. Quality of Korean wheat noodles and its relations to physicochemical properties of flour. Korean J Food Sci Technol 31: 138-146
  11. Park JU, Ahn JY, Hahn YS. 2005. Development and quality evaluation of hypo-allergenic bakery products using homegrown wheat. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37: 736-740
  12. Han OK, Kim YK. 2005. Difference in volatile flavor components among milling fractions of wheat. Korean J Corp Sci 50: 442-446
  13. Rhee C. 1983. A study on rheological properties of dough and whole wheat bread-baking test of wheat variety 'Cho-Kwang'. Korean J Food Sci Technol 15: 215-219
  14. Kim HB. 1995. Varietal difference of immature spike number and its relationship with other characters in barley and wheat. Korean J Crop Sci 40: 245-249
  15. Kim CT, Cho SJ, Hwang JK, Kim CJ. 1997. Composition of amino acids, sugars and minerals of domestic wheat varieties. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 229-235
  16. Choe JS, Youn JY. 2005. The chemical composition of barley and wheat varieties. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 223-229
  17. American Association of Cereal Chemist. 1983. Approved Methods of the AACC. St. Paul, Minnesota. p 16
  18. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Maryland. p 30
  19. Daniel NWR, Richmond JW, Russell EPW, Coppock JBM. 1996. Studies in lipids of flour. Lipid binding in bread marketing. J Sci Food Agric 17: 20-24
  20. Miller GL. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31: 426-428
  21. Peter V, Dick D, Lance L, Gabriela B, John S, David R. 2004. Impact of fermentation temperature on yeast reductase activity. Master Brewers Association of American Communication 41: 282-292
  22. McClear BV, Glennie-Holmes M. 1985. Enzymic quantification of (1-3)(1-4)-$\beta$-glucan in barley and malt. J Inst Brew 91: 285-288
  23. 식품공업협회. 2005. 식품공전. p 773
  24. Ku KH, Park DJ, Kim JH. 1996. Characteristics of physicochemical and processing of domestic wheat varieties. Proceeding of Conference in Fall of Korean Soc Food Sci Technol. p 45-46
  25. Ju JI, Lee KS, Min HI, Lee BJ, Kwon BG, Gu JH, Oh MJ. 2007. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of green barley according to days after heading. Korean J Crop Sci 51: 36-44
  26. Park H. 1976. Varieties difference in protein, carbohydrate, P, K, Ca and Mg content of naked barley. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 19: 82-84
  27. Lee JS, Kim SK, Kim CS, Cho MH. 1983. Contents of minerals and amino acid of husked and naked barley. Korean J Food Sci Technol 15: 90-92

Cited by

  1. Comparison of the Characteristics of Wheat Cultivars Used for Whole Green Wheat Grain Production vol.61, pp.4, 2016,
  2. The Quality Characteristics of Backsulgi with Dough Ripe Stage Rice and Yellow Ripe Stage Rice vol.29, pp.4, 2013,
  3. Utilisation of immature wheat flour as an alternative flour with antioxidant activity and consumer perception on its baked product vol.232, 2017,
  4. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in immature and mature wheat kernels vol.196, 2016,
  5. Quality Characteristics of Misutkaru and Their Cookies Made with Immature Whole Green Rice and Barely vol.42, pp.11, 2013,
  6. Quality Characteristics of Bakery Products with Whole Green Wheat Powder vol.29, pp.2, 2013,
  7. Effect of Coffee Grounds' Residue on the Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Korean Wheat Sprout vol.29, pp.2, 2014,
  8. Effects of immature wheat on some properties of flour blends and rheological properties of dough vol.9, pp.1, 2017,