Quality Characteristics of Muffin Added Red Yeast Rice Flour

홍국분말을 첨가한 머핀의 품질 특성

  • Published : 2007.06.30


Red yeast rice flour, which is a natural functional material, was used in muffin production at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10%. The initial pasting temperature was not affected by the addition of red yeast rice flour, whereas peak viscosity and final viscosity decreased with increasing concentrations. The lightness value of the muffins decreased, however, the redness value increased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice flour. The bulk of the muffins was generally reduced by the addition of red yeast rice flour. At the 10% concentration, hardness and viscosity were similar to the control, and there were no changes in springiness or cohesiveness. For the sensory evaluation, parameters such as appearance, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptability increased significantly from the control at the 3% concentration of red yeast rice flour, but flavor decreased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice flour. Based on these results and the sensory evaluation specifically, the optimal amount of red yeast rice flour added to the muffins was the 3% concentration.


red yeast rice;muffin;quality properties


  1. Eizyro N. Pigment of Monascus purpureus Went (Part I). Japan J. Agr. Chem. Soc. 8: 1007-1015 (1932)
  2. Chen MH, Johns MR. Effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigment production by Monascus purpureus. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 40: 132-138 (1993)
  3. Lee WJ, Jung JK. Quality characteristics and preparation of noodles from brown rice flour and colored rice flour. Korean J. Culinary Res. 8: 267-278 (2002)
  4. Lim JK, Kim YS, Ha TY. Effect of sorghum flour addition on the quality characteristics of muffin. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 1158-1162 (1998)
  5. Wong HC, Koehler PE. Production and isolation of an antibiotic from M purpureus and its relationship to pigment production. J. Food Sci. 46: 589-592 (1981) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb04917.x
  6. Kim DW, Kim YH. Quality characteristics of bread added Monascus anka powder. Korean J. Culinary Res. 9: 39-50 (2003)
  7. Tsuji K, Ichikawa T, Tanaba N, Abe S, Tarui S, Naagawa Y. Effects of beni-koji foods blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakk. 39: 919-924 (1992) https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.39.919
  8. Wild D, Toth G, Humpf HU. New Monascus metabolite isolated from red yeast rice (angkak, red koji). J. Agr. Food Chem. 50: 3999-4002 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020023s
  9. Tsuji K, Icikawa T, Tanabe N, Obata H, Abe S, Tarui S, Nakagawa Y. Effects of two kids of koji on blood pressure in spotaneously hypetensive rats. Nippon Nogeik. Kaishi 66: 1241-1246 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1271/nogeikagaku1924.66.1241
  10. Carles M, Shephered D. The effect of different nitrogen sources on pigment production and sporulation of Monascus sp. in submerged-shaken culture. Can. J. Microbiol. 23: 1360-1368 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1139/m77-205
  11. Tarui S. Developement and utility of red mold rice. Shokuhin to Kaihatu 28: 47-50 (1993)
  12. Wong HC, Bau YS. Pigmentation and antibacterial activity of fast neuron- and X-ray induced strains of Monascus purpureus Went. Plant Physiol. 60: 578-581 (1977) https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.60.4.578
  13. Kim CS, Rhee SH, Kim I. Studies on production and characteristics of edible red color pigment produced by mold (Monascus sp.). Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 9: 277-283 (1977)
  14. Tsuji K, Icikawa T, Tanabe N, Obata H, Abe S, Tarui S, Nakagawa Y. Antihypertensive activities of beni koji extracts and ${\gamma}$aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nippon Eiyogaku Zasshi. 50: 285-291 (1992) https://doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.50.285
  15. Yasukawa K, Takahashi M, Natori S, Kawai KI, Yamazaki M, Tkeuchi M, Takito M. Azaphilones inhibit tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage cacinogenesis in mice. Oncology 51: 108-112 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1159/000227320
  16. Ando A. Monacolin K, a new hypocholesterolemic agent that specifically inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. J. Antibiot. 33: 334-336 (1980) https://doi.org/10.7164/antibiotics.33.334
  17. Lee JS, Oh MS. Quality characteristics of cookies with black rice flour. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 22: 193-203 (2006)
  18. Ando A. Monacolin K, a new hypocholesterolemic agent produced by a Monascus species. J. Antibiot. 32: 852-854 (1979) https://doi.org/10.7164/antibiotics.32.852
  19. Jonson FCS. Characteristics of muffins containing various levels of waxy rice flour. Cereal Chem. 67: 114-119 (1990)
  20. Yasukawa K, Takahashi M, Yamanouchi S, Takito M. Inhibitory effect of oral administration of Monascus pigment on tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Oncology 53: 247-249 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1159/000227568