Anti-diabetic Effect of Crude Polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa in $KK-A^{y}$ Diabetic Mouse and 3T3-L1 Adipocyte

3T3-L1지방세포 및 제2형 당뇨모델($KK-A^{y}$)에서 잎새버섯(Grifola frondosa) 조다당체 추출물의 항당뇨 효과

  • Park, Kum-Ju (Institute of Food & Culture R&D Center for Functional Food, Pulmuone Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Oh, Young-Joo (Institute of Food & Culture R&D Center for Functional Food, Pulmuone Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Yun (Institute of Food & Culture R&D Center for Functional Food, Pulmuone Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Su (Division of Life Sciences, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Ha, Hyo-Cheol (Institute of Food & Culture R&D Center for Functional Food, Pulmuone Co., Ltd.)
  • 박금주 (풀무원 식문화연구원 기능성연구소) ;
  • 오영주 (풀무원 식문화연구원 기능성연구소) ;
  • 이상윤 (풀무원 식문화연구원 기능성연구소) ;
  • 김현수 (경남대학교 생명과학부) ;
  • 하효철 (풀무원 식문화연구원 기능성연구소)
  • Published : 2007.06.30


This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic mechanism of crude polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa. We treated 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells to observe whether the crude polysaccharides isolated from Grifola frondosa would stimulate insulin sensitivity. Significant insulin sensitizing activity was observed in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and giving the crude polysaccharide of Grifola frondosa with 1 nM of insulin caused glucose uptake to increase to a similar level as giving 50 nM of insulin alone. To confirm the mechanism for the anti-diabetic effect of the crude polysaccharides, we performed further examinations within $KK-A^{y}$ mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The crude polysaccharides reduced blood glucose levels in the $KK-A^{y}$ mice for 2 weeks after feeding, and also significantly lowered plasma insulin levels. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the crude polysaccharide of Grifola frondosa is related to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity.


  1. Park SH, Chung KH. Antidiabetic effect of Vanadium Yeast Complex. J. Appl. Pharmacol. 9: 270-276 (2001)
  2. Song JY, Yoon KJ, Yoon HK, Koo SJ. Effect of ${\beta}$-glucan from Lentinus edodes and Hordeum vulgare on blood glucose and lipid composition in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33: 802-807 (2001)
  3. Nanba H. Activity of Maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 30: 243-245 (1995)
  4. Kabir Y, Yamaguchi M, Kimura S. Effect of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipid of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 33: 341-346 (1987)
  5. Kubo K, Aoki H, Nanba H. Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). BioI. Pharm. Bull. 17: 1106-1110 (1994)
  6. Horio H, Ohtsuru M. Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 47: 57-63 (2001)
  7. Kang TS, Kang MS, Sung JM, Kang As, Shon HR, Lee SY. Effects of pleurotus eryngii on the blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic rats. Korean J. Mycol. 29: 86-90 (2001)
  8. Talpur NA, Echard BW, Fan Ay, Jaffari O, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and its fractions in two rat strains. Mol. Cell Biochem. 237: 129-136 (2002)
  9. Liu F, Kim JK, Li Y, Liu XQ, Li J, Chen X. An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J. Nutr. 131: 2242-2247 (2001)
  10. Mizuno T, Zhuang C. Maitake, Grifola frondosa: Pharmacological effects. Food Rev. Int. 11: 135-149 (1995)
  11. Nanba H, Kubo K. Effect of Maitake D-fraction on cancer prevention. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 29: 204-207 (1997)
  12. Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG. Effects of a water-soluble extract of Maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 4: 43- 48 (2002)
  13. Kang Y, Kim HY. Glucose uptake-stimulatory activity of Amomi Semen in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J. Ethnopharmcol. 92: 103-105 (2004)
  14. Kwon EH, Jung MA, Rhee SJ, Choi SW, Cho SH. Antioxidant effects and improvement of lipid metabolism of mulberry fruit, mulberry leaves, and silkworm powder with different mixing ratios in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 39: 91-99 (2006)
  15. Matsui K, Kodama N, Nanba H. Effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction on the carcinoma angiogenesis. Cancer Lett. 172: 193-198 (2001)
  16. Mukherjee R, Hoener PA, Jow L, Bilakovics J, Klausing K, Mais DE, Faulkner A, Croston GE, Patemiti JR. A selective peroxisome proliferators activiated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) modulator blocks adipocyte differentiation but stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mol. Endocrinol. 14: 1425-1433 (2000)
  17. Kube K, Nanba H. Anti-diabetic mechanism of Maitake (Grifola frondosa). pp. 215-222. In: Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Royse (ed.) Co. Ltd. Penn State Uni., PA, USA (1996)
  18. Lee JS, Lee MH, Chang YK, Ju JS, Son HS. Effect of buckwheat diet on serum glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Korean J. Nutr. 28: 809-817 (1995)
  19. Yuan Z, He P, Cui J, Takeuchi H. Hypoglycemic effect of watersoluble polysaccharide from Auricularia auricular-Judae Quel. On genetically diabetic KK-$A^y$ mice. Biosci. Biotech. Bioch. 62: 1898-1903 (1998)
  20. Yoshihiha T, Yasumitsu T, Masaori I, Takeshi T, Tasuku S, Hisao M, Hajime I, Manabu I, Isao U, Rie I, Masaharu U, Yusuke S, Toshifumi I, Shuji T, Masahi K. Effect of glmepiride (HOE 490) on insulin receptors of skeletal muscles from genitically diabetic KK-$A^y$ mouse. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 308: 205-210 (1996)
  21. Ko BS, Kim HK, Park SM. Insulin sensitizing and insulin-like effects of water extracts from Kalopanax pictus Nakai in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 45: 42-46 (2002)
  22. Kiho T, Kochi M, Usui S, Hirano K, Aizawa K, Inakuma T. Antidiabetic effect of an acidic polysaccharide (TAP) from Tremella aurantia and its degradation product (TAP-H). BioI. Pharm. Bull. 24: 1400-1403 (2001)
  23. Mayell M. Maitake extracts and their therapeutic potential -A Review. Altern. Med. Rev. 6: 48-60 (2001)
  24. Manchem VP, Goldfine lD, Kohanski RA, Cristobal CP, Lum RT, Schow SR, Shi S, Spevak WR, Laborde E, Toavs DK, Villar HO, Wick MM, Kozlowski MR. A novel small molecule that directly sensitizes the insulin receptor in vitro and in vivo. Diabetes 50: 824-830 (2001)
  25. Ha HC, Park S, Park KS, Lee CW, Jung IC, Kim SH, Kwon YI, Lee JS. Isolation and purification of protein-bound polysaccharides from the sawdust mycelia of Agrocybe cylindracea. Korean J. Mycol. 23: 121-128 (1995)
  26. Adachi K, Nanba H, Otsuka M, Kuroda H. Blood pressure-lowering activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). J. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 1000-1006 (1988)
  27. Kubo K, Nanba H. Anti-hyperliposis effect of Maitake fruit body (Grifola frondosa). J. BioI. Pharm. Bull. 20: 781-785 (1997)