Photocatalysis of Low Concentration of Gaseous-Phase Benzene Using Visible-Light Irradiated N-doped and S-doped Titanium Dioxide



Jo, Wan-Kuen;Kim, Jong-Tae

  • 발행 : 2008.12.28


Studies on visible-light-driven photocatalysis of air pollutants at indoor air quality (IAQ) levels have been limited. Current study investigated visible-light derived photocatalysis with N-doped and S-doped titanium dioxide ($TiO_2$) for the control of benzene at indoor levels. Two preparation processes were employed for each of the two types of photocatalyst: urea-Degussa P-25 $TiO_2$ and titania-colloid methods for the N-doped $TiO_2$; and titanium isopropoxid- and tetraisopropoxide-thiourea methods for the S-doped $TiO_2$. Furthermore, two coating methods (EDTA- and acetylacetone-dissolving methods) were tested for both the N-doped and S-doped $TiO_2$. The two coating methods exhibited different photocatalytic degradation efficiency for the N-doped photocatalysts, whereas they did not exhibit any difference for the S-doped photocatalysts. In addition, the two doping processes showed different photocatalytic degradation efficiency for both the S-doped and N-doped photocatalysts. For both the N-doped and S-doped $TiO_2$, the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) efficiency increased as the hydraulic diameter (HD) decreased. The degradation efficiency determined via a PCO system with visible-light induced $TiO_2$ was lower than that with UV-light induced unmodified $TiO_2$, which was obtained from previous studies. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that for the photocatalytic annular reactor with the HD of 0.5 cm, PCO efficiency increased up to 52% for the N-doped $TiO_2$ and 60% for the S-doped $TiO_2$. Consequently, when combined with the advantage of visible light use over UV light use, it is suggested that with appropriate HD conditions, the visible-light-assisted photocatalytic systems can also become an important tool for improving IAQ.


Photocatalytic oxidation;$TiO_2$;Coating method;Doping process


  1. Nazeeruddin, M. K., Kay, A., Rodicio, I., Humphry-Baker, R., Muller, E., Liska, P., Vlachopoulos, N., and Gratzel, M., "Conversion of light to electricity by is-X2bis(2,2'-bipyridyl- 4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II) charge-transfer sensitizers $(X\;=\;Cl^-,\;Br^-,\;I^-,\;CN^-,\;and\;SCN^-)$ on nanocrystalline $TiO_2$ electrodes," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 6382-6390 (1993)
  2. Nosaka, Y., Matsushita, M., Nishino, J., and Nosaka, A. Y., "Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts for visible response prepared by using organic compounds," Sci. Tech. Adv. Mat., 6, 143-148 (2005)
  3. Xagas, A. P., Androulaki, E., Hiskia, A., and Falaras, P., "Preparation, fractal, surface morphology and photocatalytic properties of $TiO_2$ films," Thin Solid Films, 357, 173-178 (1999)
  4. Hanninen, O. O., Lebret, E., Ilacqua, V., Katsouyanni, K., Kunzli, N., Sram, N., and Jantunen, M., "Infiltration of ambient PM2.5 and levels of indoor generated non-ETS in residences of four European cities," Atmos. Environ., 38, 6411-6423 (2004)
  5. Wang, B., Lee, S. C., and Ho, K. F., "Characteristics of carbonyls: Concentrations and source strengths for indoor and outdoor residential microenvironments in China," Atmos. Environ., 41, 2851-2861 (2007)
  6. Bacsa, R., Kiwi, J., Ohno, T., Albers, P., and Nadtochenko, V., "Preparation, testing and characterization of doped $TiO_2$ active in the peroxidation of biomolecules under visible light," J. Phys. Chem., 109, 5994-6003 (2005)
  7. Demeestere, K., Dewulf, J., Ohno, T., Salgado, P. H., and Langenhove, H. V., "Visible light mediated photocatalytic degradation of gaseous trichloroethylene and dimethyl sulfide on modified titanium dioxide," Appl. Catal. B, 61, 140-149 (2005)
  8. Tsoukleris, D. S., Maggos, T., Vassilakos, C., and Falaras, P., "Photocatalytic degradation of volatile organics on $TiO_2$ embedded glass spherules," Catal. Today, 129, 96-101 (2007)
  9. Stevens, L., Lanning, J. A., Anderson, L. G., Jacoby, W. A., and Chornet, N., "Investigation of the photocatalytic oxidation of low-level carbonyl compounds," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 48, 979-984 (1998)
  10. Wang, K., Tsai, H., and Hsieh, Y., "A study of photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene in vapor phase on $TiO_2$ photocatalyst," Chemosphere, 36, 2763-2773 (1998)
  11. Hager, S., Bauer, R. and Kudielka, G., "Photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous chlorinated prganics over titanium dioxide," Chemosphere, 41, 1219-1225 (2000)
  12. Ye, X., Chen, D., Gossage, J., and Li, K., "Photocatalytic oxidation of aldehydes: Byproduct identification and reaction pathway," J. Photoch. Photobio. A, 183, 35-40 (2006)
  13. Singer, B. C., Destaillats, H., Hodgson, A. T., and Nazaroff, W. W., "Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids," Indoor Air, 16, 179-191 (2006)
  14. Jarnstrom, H., Saarela, K., Kalliokoski, P., and Pasanen, A. -L., "Reference values for indoor air pollutant concentrations in new residential buildings in Finland," Atmos. Environ., 40, 7178-7191 (2006)
  15. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks of chemicals to man. WHO, Geneva (2004)
  16. Park, Y. G., "The effect of $TiO_2$ film thickness on the photodegradation of formaldehyde," J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Engineers, 29, 1243-1250 (2007)
  17. Zhao, J. and Yang, X., "Photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air purification: a literature review," Build. Environ., 38, 645-654 (2003)
  18. Wang, S., Ang, H. M., and Tade, M. O., "Volatile organic compounds in indoor environment and photocatalytic oxidation: state of the art," Environ. Int., 33, 694-705 (2007)
  19. Ihara, T., Miyoshi, M., Ando, M., Sugihara, S., and Iriyama, Y., "Preparation of visible-light-active $TiO_2$ catalyst by RF plasma treatment," J. Mat. Sci., 36, 4201-4207 (2001)
  20. Sakthivel, S. and Kisch, H., "Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide," Chemphyschem, 4, 487-490 (2003)
  21. Asahi, R., Morikawa, T., Ohwaki, T., Aoki, K., and Taga, Y., "Visible-light photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides," Science, 293, 269-271 (2001)
  22. Ohno, T., Akiyoshi, M., Umebayashi, T., Asai, K., Mitsui, T., and Matsumura, M., "Preparation of S-doped $TiO_2$ photocatalysts and their photocatalytic activities under visible light," Appl. Catal. A, 265, 115-121 (2004)
  23. Buzcu, B. and Fraser, M. P., "Source identification and apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Houston, Tx," Atmos. Environ., 40, 2385-2400 (2006)
  24. Kawashima, H., Minami, S., Hanai, Y., and Fushimi, A., "Volatile organic compound emission factors from roadside measurements," Atmos. Environ., 40, 2301-2312 (2006)
  25. Brown, S. G., Frankel, A., and Hafner, H. R., "Source apportionment of VOCs in the Los Angeles area using positive matrix factorization," Atmos. Environ., 41, 227-237 (2007)
  26. Yu, K. P., Lee G. W. H., Huang, W. M., Wu, C., and Yang, S., "The correlation between photocatalytic oxidation performance and chemical/physical properties of indoor volatile organic compounds," Atmos. Environ., 40, 375-385 (2006)
  27. Joo, H., Jeon, M., and Lee, T., "Photocatalysts: Theory and its application," J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Engineers, 21, 1231-1240 (1999)
  28. Chatterjee, D. and Dasgupta, S., "Visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants," J. Photoch. Photobio. C, 6, 186-205 (2005)
  29. Hirano, K., Suzuki, E., Ishikawa, A., Moroi, T., Shiroishi, H., and Kaneko, M., "Sensitization of $TiO_2$ particles by dyes to achieve $H_2$ evolution by visible light," J. Photoch. Photobio. A, 136, 157-161 (2000)
  30. Li, X. Z. and Li, F. B., "Study of $Au/Au^{3+}-TiO_2$ photocatalysts toward visible photooxidation for water and wastewater treatment," Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 2381-2387 (2001)
  31. Li, D., Haneda, H., Hishita, S., and Ohashi, N., "Visible-lightdriven nitrogen-doped $TiO_2$ photocatalysts: effect of nitrogen precursors on their photocatalysis for decomposition of gas-phase organic pollutants," Mat. Sci. Eng. B, 117, 67-75 (2005)
  32. Irokawa, Y., Morikawa, T., Aoki, K., Kosaka, S., Ohwaki, T., and Taga, Y., "Photodegradation of toluene over $TiO_2-xN_x$ under visible light irradiation," Phy. Chem. Chem. Phys., 8, 1116-1121 (2006)
  33. Li, D. Haneda, H., Hishita, S., and Ohashi, N., "Visible-lightdriven nitrogen-doped $TiO_2$ photocatalysts: Effect of nitrogen precursors on their photocatalysis for decomposition of gas-phase organic pollutants," Mat. Sci. Eng. B, 117, 67-75 (2005)
  34. Jo, W. K. and Park, K. H., "Heterogeneous photocatalysis of aromatic and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for non-occupational indoor air application," Chemosphere, 57, 555-565 (2004)

피인용 문헌

  1. 1. Electrochemical anodization of graphite oxide-TiO2 nanotube composite for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity pp.1614-7499, 2017, doi:10.4491/eer.2008.13.4.171