Influence of Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Sex Hormones of Male Epoxy Resin Painters

Cha, Bong-Suk;Koh, Sang-Baek;Park, Jun-Ho;Eom, Ae-Yong;Lee, Kang-Myeung;Choi, Hong-Soon

  • 발행 : 2008.09.30

초록

Epidemiological studies demonstrate an adverse effect of several environmental and occupational exposures on male sex hormone. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weak estrogen and a widely used industrial chemical. Epoxy resin painters may be continuously exposed to BPA at high concentrations. The effect of occupational exposure of BPA on male reproduction was examined by measuring the urinary BPA, testosterone and gonadotropic hormones of epoxy resin painters in the shipyard. The painters had significantly higher concentrations of urinary BPA (2.61${\pm}$1.08 ${\mu}g$/g creatinine) than controls (1.38${\pm}$0.5 9 ${\mu}g$/g creatinine). In serum, the testosterone level of painters was significantly decreased but the luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels of painters were significantly higher than controls. Occupational exposure to BPA influences testosterone and gonadotropic hormones in male workers.

키워드

Bisphenol A;Occupational exposure;Epoxy resin painters;Testosterone;Gonadotropic hormones

참고문헌

  1. Volkel, W. et al. Metabolism and kinetics of bisphenol A in human at low doses following oral administration. Chem Res Toxicol 15:1281-1287 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1021/tx025548t
  2. Gaido, K. W. et al. Evaluation of chemicals with endocrine midulating activity in a yeast-based steroid hormone receptor gene transcription assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 143: 205-212 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1996.8069
  3. Akingbemi, B. T. et al. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenetic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells. Endocrinology 145:592-603 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1174
  4. Matsumoto, A. et al. Bisphenol A levels in human urine. Environ Health Perspectives 11:101-104 (2003) https://doi.org/10.2307/3428331
  5. Carlsen, E., Giwercman, A., Keiding, N. & Skakkebaek, N. E. Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years. Br Med J 305:609-613 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.305.6854.609
  6. Winker, R. & Rudiger, H. W. Reproductive toxicology in occupational settings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79:1-10 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-005-0011-5
  7. Herath, C. B. et al. Adverse effects of environmental toxicants, octylphenol and bisphenol A, on male reproductive functions in pubertal rats. Endocrine 25:163-172 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1385/ENDO:25:2:163
  8. Tohei, A., Suda, S., Hashimoto, T. & Kogo, H. Bisphenol A inhibits testicular functions and increased luteinizing hormone secretion in adult male rats. Exp Biol Med 226:216-221 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1177/153537020122600309
  9. The Worldwide News Sources for Chemical Makers and Processors. Chemical Week. 2005 (online), available from , (accessed 2007. 1. 11)
  10. Hanaoka, T., Kawamura, N., Hara, K. & Tsugane, S. Urinary bisphenol A and plasma hormone concentrations in male workers exposed to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and mixed organic solvents. Occup Environ Med 59:625-628 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.59.9.625
  11. Steinmetz, R. et al. The environmental estrogen bisphenol A stimulates prolactin release in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 138:1780-1786 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1210/en.138.5.1780
  12. Matthews, J. B., Twomey, K. & Zacharewski, T. R. In vitro and in vivo interactions of bisphenol A and its metabolite, bisphenol A glucuronide, with estrogen receptors $\alpha$ and $\beta$. Chem Res Toxicol 14:149-157 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1021/tx0001833
  13. Villalobos, M. et al. The E-Screen assay: a comparison of different MCF-7 cell stocks. Environ Health Perspect 103:844-850 (1995) https://doi.org/10.2307/3432398
  14. Pottenger, L. H. et al. The relative bioavailability and metabolism of bisphenol A in rats dependent upon the route of administration. Toxicol Sci 54:3-18 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/54.1.3
  15. Luderer, U. et al. Effects of occupational solvent exposure on reproductive hormone concentrations and fecundability in men. Am J Ind Med 46:614-626 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.20100
  16. Krishnan, A. V. et al. Bisphenol-A: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving. Endocrinology 132:2279-2286 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1210/en.132.6.2279
  17. Morck, H. I. et al. Health effects of toluene exposure. Dan Med Bull 35:196-200 (1998)
  18. Calafat, A. M. et al. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population. Environmental Health Perspective 113:391-395 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7534
  19. Evans, N. P., North, T., Dye, S. & Sweeney, T. Differential effects of the endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol-A and octylphenol on gonadotropin secretion, in prepubertal ewe lambs. Domest Anim Endocrinol 26:61-73 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2003.09.005
  20. Gupta, C. Reproductive malformation of the male offspring following maternal exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 224:61-68 (2000)
  21. Snyder, R. W. et al. Metabolism and disposition of bisphenol A in female rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 168:225-234 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.2000.9051
  22. Vom Saal, F. S. et al. A physiologically based approach to the study of bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals on the size of reproductive organs, daily sperm production, and behavior. Toxicol Ind Health 14:239-260 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379801400115
  23. Ramos, J. G. et al. Prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A alters the periductal stroma and glandular cell function in the rat ventral prostate. Biol Reprod 65:1271-1277 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod65.4.1271