- Volume 21 Issue 10
DOI QR Code
The Growth-promoting Effect of Tetrabasic Zinc Chloride is Associated with Elevated Concentration of Growth Hormone and Ghrelin
- Zhang, Bingkun (State Key Lab of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology China Agricultural University) ;
- Guo, Yuming (State Key Lab of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology China Agricultural University)
- Received : 2008.01.23
- Accepted : 2008.04.16
- Published : 2008.10.01
An experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanism for the effect of tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC) in enhancing growth performance of weanling piglets. Gut-brain peptides play an important role in the regulation of growth and appetite in animals. This study evaluated the effects of TBZC on blood concentrations of growth hormone (GH), ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), cholecystokinin (CCK) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Seventy-two weanling piglets (Landrace
Tetrabasic Zinc Chloride;Pig;Growth Hormone;Ghrelin
- Bhatti, S. F., L. M. Ham, J. A. van Mol and H. S. Kooistra. 2006. Ghrelin, an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue with diverse endocrine and nonendocrine effects. Am. J. Vet. Res. 67:180-188. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.1.180
- Carlson, D., H. D. Poulsen and M. Vestergaard. 2004. Additional dietary zinc for weaning piglets is associated with elevated concentrations of serum IGF-I. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 88:332-339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2004.00488.x
- Carlson, M. S., G. M. Hill and J. E. Link. 1999. Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: Effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 1199-1207. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.7751199x
- Case, C. L. and M. S. Carlson. 2002. Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1917-1924. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8071917x
- Bauer-Dantoin, A. C., J. K. McDonald and J. E. Levine. 1991. Neuropeptide Y potentiates luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone-stimulated LH surges in pentobarbital proestrus rats. Endocrinol. 129:402-408. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo-129-1-402
- Zhang, B. and Y. Guo. 2007. Beneficial effects of tetrabasic zinc chloride for weanling piglets and the bioavailability of zinc in tetrabasic form relative to ZnO. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech. 135:75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.06.006
- Swamy, H. V., T. K. Smith and E. J. MacDonald. 2004. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of starter pigs and broiler chickens. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 2131-2139. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8272131x
- Sjogren, K., J. L. Liu, K. Blad, S. Skrtic, O. Vidal, V. Wallenius, D. Leroith, J. Tornell, O. G. P. Isaksson, J. Jansson and C. Ohlsson. 1999. Liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the principal source of IGF-I in blood but is not required for postnatal body growth in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96:7088-7092. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.12.7088
- Stanley, B. G. and S. F. Leibowitz. 1985. Neuropeptide Y injected in the paraventricular hypothalamus: a powerful stimulant of feeding behavior. Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:3940-3943. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.82.11.3940
- Tschop, M., D. L. Smiley and M. L. Heiman. 2000. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407:908-913. https://doi.org/10.1038/35038090
- Wallenius, K. S., X. D. Peng, S. Park, V. Wallenius, J. L. Liu, M. Umaerus, H. Wennbo, O. Isaksson, L. Frohman, R. Kineman, C. Ohlsson and J. O. Jansson. 2001. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates GH secretion at the pituitary level in mice. Endocrinol. 142:4762-4770. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.142.11.4762
Wang, Z., Y. Guo, J. Yuan and B. Zhang. 2008. Effect of dietary
$\beta$-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation on growth performance, immune response and plasma prostaglandin E2, growth hormone and ghrelin in weanling piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:707-714. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70559
- Yakar, S., J. L. Liu, B. Stannard, A. Butler, D. Accili and B. Sauer. 1999. Normal growth and development in the absence of hepatic insulin like growth factor I. PNAS. 96:7324-7329. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.13.7324
- Mavromichalis, I., D. M. Webel, E. N. Parr and D. H. Baker. 20001. Growth-promoting efficacy of pharmacological doses of tetrabasic zinc chloride in diets for nursery pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 387-391.
- National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Ed. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.
- Poulsen, H. D. 1995. Zinc oxide for weanling piglets. Acta Agric. Scand. A: Anim. Sci. 45:159-167.
- Rosenfeld, R. G. and C. T. J. Roberts. 1999. The IGF system: molecular biology, physiology, and clinical applications. Humana Press, Totowa. NJ.
- Schell, T. C. and E. T. Kornegay. 1994. Effectiveness of zinc acetate injection in alleviating postweaning performance lag in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:3037-3042. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72123037x
- Havel, P. J. 2001. Peripheral signals conveying metabolic information to the brain: short-term and long-term regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Exp. Biol. Med. 226: 963-977. https://doi.org/10.1177/153537020122601102
- Huda, M. S. B., J. P. H. Wilding and J. H. Pinkney. 2006. Gut peptides and the regulation of appetite. Obesity Reviews. 7: 163-182. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00245.x
- Kojima, M. and K. Kangawa. 2005. Ghrelin: structure and function. Physiol. Rev. 85:495-522. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00012.2004
- Kojima, M., H. Hosoda, Y. Date, M. Nakazato, H. Matsuo and K. Kangawa. 1999. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature 402:656-660. https://doi.org/10.1038/45230
- Li, X., J. Yin, D. Li, X. Chen, J. Zang and X. Zhou. 2006. Dietary supplementation with zinc oxide increases IGF-I and IGF-I receptor gene expression in the small intestine of weaning piglets. J. Nutr. 136:1786-1791. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.7.1786
- Clark, R. G., L. M. S. Carlsson, D. Mortensen and M. J. Cronin. 1994. Additive effects on body growth of insulin-like growth factor-l and growth hormone in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinol. Metab. 1:49-54.
- Daughaday, W. H., I. K. Mariz and S. L. Blethen. 1980. Inhibition of access of basic somatomedin to membrane receptors and immunobinding sites: A comparison of radioreceptor and radioimmunological somatomedin in native and acid ethanol extracted serum. J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 51:781-788. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-51-4-781
- Guler, H. P., J. Zapf, E. Scheiwiller and E. R. Froesch. 1988. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I stimulates growth and has distinct effects on organ size in hypophysectomizrd rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:4889-4893. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.85.13.4889
- Hahn, J. D. and D. H. Bake. 1993. Growth and plasma zinc responses of young pig fed pharmacologic levels of zinc. J. Anim. Sci. 71:3020-3024. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.71113020x
- Wu, X., M. Tang, Q. Ma, X. Hu and C. Ji. 2008. Effects of exogenous ghrelin on the behaviors and performance of weanling piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:861-867. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70574