The Pattern of Initial Displacement in Lingual Lever Arm Traction of 6 Maxillary Anterior Teeth According to Different Material Properties: 3-D FEA

유한요소모델에서 레버암을 이용한 상악 6전치 설측 견인 시 초기 이동 양상

  • Choi, In-Ho (Department of Orthodontic Dentistry, Graduate School, Dankook University) ;
  • Cha, Kyung-Suk (Department of Orthodontic Dentistry, Graduate School, Dankook University) ;
  • Chung, Dong-Hwa (Department of Orthodontic Dentistry, Graduate School, Dankook University)
  • 최인호 (단국대학교 치과대학 교정학 교실) ;
  • 차경석 (단국대학교 치과대학 교정학 교실) ;
  • 정동화 (단국대학교 치과대학 교정학 교실)
  • Received : 2008.01.22
  • Accepted : 2008.06.25
  • Published : 2008.06.30


The aim of this study was to analyze the initial movement and the stress distribution of each tooth and periodontal ligament during the lingual lever-arm retraction of 6 maxillary incisors using FEA. Two kinds of finite element models were produced: 2-properties model (simple model) and 24-properties model (multi model) according to the material property assignment. The subject was an adult male of 23 years old. The DICOM images through the CT of the patient were converted into the 3D image model of a skull using the Mimics (version 10.11, Materialise's interactive Medical Image Control System, Materialise, Belgium). After series of calculating, remeshing, exporting, importing process and volume mesh process was performed, FEA models were produced. FEA models are consisted of maxilla, maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, periodontal ligaments and lingual traction arm. The boundary conditions fixed the movements of posterior, sagittal and upper part of the model to the directions of X, Y, Z axis respectively. The model was set to be symmetrical to X axis. Through the center of resistance of maxilla complex, a retraction force of 200g was applied horizontally to the occlusal plane. Under this conditions, the initial movements and stress distributions were evaluated by 3D FEA. In the result, the amount of posterior movement was larger in the multi model than in the simple model as well as the amount of vertically rotation. The pattern of the posterior movement in the central incisors and lateral incisors was controlled tipping movement, and the amount was larger than in the canine. But the amount of root movement of the canine was larger than others. The incisor rotated downwardly and the canines upwardly around contact points of lateral incisor and canine in the both models. The values of stress are similar in the both simple and multi model.



  1. Fujita K. Development of lingual brachet technique. (Esthetic and hygienic approach to orthodontic treatment) (Part 1) Background and design. Shika Rikogaku Zasshi 1978;19:81-6
  2. Chung KR, Oh MY, Ko SJ. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. J Clin Orthod 2001;35:331-9
  3. Siatkowski RE. Lingual lever-arm technique for en masse translation in patients with generalized marginal bone loss. J Clin Orthod 1999;33:700-4
  4. Park YC, Choi KC, Lee JS, Kim TK. Lever-arm mechanics in lingual orthodontics. J Clin Orthod 2000;34:601-5
  5. Yamaguchi K, Nanda RS, Morimoto N, Oda Y. A study of force application, amount of retarding force, and bracket width in sliding mechanics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1996;109:50-6
  6. Türk T, Elekdag-Türk S, Dinçer M. Clinical evaluation of the centre of resistance of the upper incisors during retraction. Eur J Orthod 2005;27: 196-201
  7. Davidian E. Use of a computer model to study the force distribution on the root of the maxillary central incisor. Am J Orthod 1971;59:581-8
  8. Nikolai TJ. On optimum orthodontic force theory as applied to canine retraction. Am J Orthod 1975;68:290-302
  9. Burstone CJ. Optimizing anterior and canine retraction. Am J Orthod 1976;70:1-19
  10. 조정현, 이기수, 박영국. 상악 제일 대구치의 저항중심에 관한 유한요소법적 분석. 대치교정지 1993;23:263-73
  11. 박기호, 손병화. Laser 반사측정법을 이용한 상악 전치부 함입시 저항중심의 수평적 위치에 관한 연구. 대치교정지 1993;23:619-31
  12. Vanden Bulcke MM, Burstone CJ, Sachdeva RC, Dermaut LR. Location of the centers of resistance for anterior teeth during retraction using the laser reflection technique. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1987;91:375-84
  13. Tanne K, Nagataki T, Inoue Y, Sakuda M, Burstone CJ. Patterns of initial tooth displacements associated with various root lengths and alveolar bone heights. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991;100:66-71
  14. 민영규, 황충주. Laser 반사측정법을 이용한 전치부 후방견인 시 치조골 높이와 치근길이 감소에 따른 저항중심의 위치변화에 관한 연구. 대치교정지 1999;29:165-81
  15. 우재영, 박영철. Laser 반사측정법을 이용한 상악 전치부의 후방견인시 저항중심의 수직적 위치에 관한 실험적 연구. 대치교정지 1979;23:375-89
  16. aputo AA, Chaconas SJ, Hayashi RK. Photoelastic visualization of orthodontic forces during canine retraction. Am J Orthod 1974;65:250-9
  17. Eden JD, Waters NE. An investigation into the characteristics of the PG canine retraction spring. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1994;105:49-60
  18. Tanne K, Koening HA, Brustone CJ. Moment to force ratios and the center of rotation. Am J Orthod 1988;94:426-31
  19. Wilson AN, Middleton J, McGuinness N, Jones M. A finite element study of canine retraction with a palatal spring. Br J Orthod 1991;18:211-8
  20. Sung SJ, Baik HS, Moon YS, Yu HS, Cho YS. A comparative evaluation of different compensating curves in the lingual and labial techniques using 3D FEM. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;123: 441-50
  21. Cattaneo PM, Dalstra M, Frich LH. A three- dimensional finite element model from computed tomography data: a sem-automated method. Proc Inst Mech Eng 2001;215:203-13
  22. Cattaneo PM., Dalstra M., Birte Melsen. The transfer of occlusal forces through the maxillary molars : a finite element study. Am J Orthod 2003;123:367-73
  23. Maki K, Inou N, Takanishi A, Miller AJ. Modeling of structure, quality, and function in the orthodontic patient. Orthod Craniofac Res 2003;52:179-82
  24. Coolidge ED. The thickness of the human periodontal membrane. J Am Dent Assoc Dent Cosmos 1937;24:1260-70
  25. Esses SI, Lotz JC, Hayes WC. Biomechanical properties of the proximal femur determined in vitro by single-energy quantitative computed tomography. J Bone Miner Res 1989;4:715-21
  26. Harp JH, Aronson J, Hollis M. Non invasive determination of bone stiffness for distraction osteogeonesis by computed tomography scans. Clin Orthop 1994;301:42-8
  27. Storey E. Tissue response to the movement of bones. Am J Orthod 1973;64:229-47
  28. Davidovitch Z, Shanfeld JL. Cyclic AMP levels in alveolar bone of orthodontically-treated cats. Arch Oral Biol 1975;20:567-74
  29. Melsen B. Tissue reaction to orthodontic tooth movement a new paradigm. Eur J Orthod 2001;23: 671-81
  30. Iwasaki LR, Crouch LD, Tutor A, Gibson S, Hukmani N, Marx DB, Nickel JC. Tooth movement and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and whole blood in growing and adult subjects. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005;128:483-91
  31. Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Griswold ME. Longitudinal Changes in Bone Density and Geometry in a Population- Based Study. J Bone Miner Res 2007;12
  32. Cooper DM, Thomas CD, Clement JG, Turinsky AL, Sensen CW, Hallgrímsson B. Age-dependent change in the 3D structure of cortical porosity at the human femoral midshaft. Bone 2007;40:957-65
  33. Wilcko WM, Wilcko MT, Bouquot JE, Ferguson DJ. Rapid orthodontics with alveolar reshaping: two case reports of decrowding. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2001;21:9-19
  34. Ren Y, Maltha JC, Von den Hoff JW, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. Age effect on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. J Dent Res 2003;82:38-42
  35. 정동화. CT 상의 HU 수치에 따른 상악골 전방견인 효과의 유한 요소 분석. 대치교정지 2006;36: 412-21
  36. Van Den Bulcke MM., Burstone C. Location of the centers of resistance for anterior teeth during retraction using the laser reflection technique. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1987;91:375-84
  37. Andersen KL, Mortensen HT, Pedersen EH, Melsen B. Determination of stress levels and profiles in the periodontal ligament by means of an improved three-dimensional finite element model for various types of orthodontic and natural force systems. J Biomed Eng 1991;13:293-303
  38. Yoshida N, Jost-Brinkmann PG, Koga Y, Mimaki N, Kobayashi K. Experimental evaluation of initial tooth displacement, center of resistance, and center of rotation under the influence of an orthodontic force. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001;120:190-7
  39. 우재영, 박영철. Laser 반사측정법을 이용한 상악 전치부의 후방견인시 정항중심의 수직적 위치에 관한 실험적 연구. 대치교정지 1979;23: 375-89
  40. 이혜경, 정규림. 상악 6전치부의 후방 견인시 저항중심의 수직적 위치에 관한 3차원 유한요소법적 연구. 대치교정지 2001;31:425-38
  41. 김찬년, 성재현, 경희문. 골격성 고정원을 이용한 상악 6전치 후방 견인시 힘의 적용점 변화에 따른 치아 이동 양상에 관한 유한 요소법적 분석. 대치교정지 2003;33:339-50
  42. Berman M. Anterior space maintenance: aesthetics and function. Br J Orthod 1988;15:57-61
  43. Hong RK, Heo JM, Ha YK. Lever-arm and mini- implant system for anterior torque control during retraction in lingual orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod 2005;75:129-41
  44. Yoshida N, Koga Y, Mimaki N, Kobayashi K. In vivo determination of the centres of resistance of maxillary anterior teeth subjected to retraction forces. Eur J Orthod 2001;23:529-34
  45. Chang YI, Shin SJ, Baek SH. Three-dimensional finite element analysis in distal en masse movement of the maxillary dentition with the multiloop edgewise archwire. Eur J Orthod 2004;26:339-45
  46. Young-Chel Park, Yoon-Jeong Choi. Esthetic segmental retraction retraction of maxillary anterior teeth with a palatal appliance and orthodontic mini-implants. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;131:537-44
  47. Kurz C, Swartz ML, Andreiko C. Lingual orthodontics: a status report. Part 2: Research and development. J Clin Orthod 1982;16:735-40
  48. Andersen KL, Motensen HT, Pendersen EH, Melsen B. Determination of stress levels and profiles in the periodontal ligament by means of an improved three-dimensional finite element model for various types of orthodontic and natural force systems. J Biomed Eng 1991:13;293-303
  49. Goel VK, Khera SC, Gurusami S, Chen RC. Effect of cavity depth on stresses in a restored tooth. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67:174-83